1. of challenges and the change management


the present dynamic business world, when changes are not handled properly
strains the ability of entrepreneurs to improve the business of creating and
maintaining competitive advantage. Several organizations tend to adapt and
change continuously to remain competitive and effective. Latest statistics says
that one out of three efforts towards organizational change is successful by
the leaders. Implementation of a successful change program is full of
challenges and the change management process remains highly difficult. change is
considered an opportunity to strengthen the business by aligning operations
with strategy, take new risks and advance careers. Change is not implemented in
a single moment, and likewise the role of business leaders in managing change
should not be reduced to a single event. The manager’s role in change must be
active and visible in all phases of the change process. Theoretical models of
change management are the main aspects in implementing rapid change. The
objective of this essay is to discuss the challenges in the change management,
which has become one of the most important issues for HR managers in today’s
world. The organization of the essay will start with a discussion of the two
change models and their challenges related to change management. Finally, the essay
will provide recommendations and suggestions that can be helpful for management
of change in the present business world.

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Table 1.1.: Research questions (own

Research Questions



How does organizational culture affect change management?



How is
organizational structure a determinant in change management process?



How does leadership affect change management



How do
resources have effects on change management



Theoretical Foundations

management is a basic skill that most leaders and managers should be competent
and ready to accept. Moreover, managerial interest in the topic has been
stimulated by the comments of Peter Drucker as to whether one can manage change
at all or merely lead or facilitate its occurrence within an organization. Typically,
the objective is to maximize the collective efforts of all people involved in
the change and minimize the risk of failure of implementing the change. Change
is not implemented in a single moment, and the role of leaders managing change
should not be reduced to an event. The manager’s role in change must be active
in all phases of the change process. There are four types of change that an
organization goes through with the possibility of overlap among each phase.
Operational changes can affect the way in which the business operations are
conducted. Strategic changes occur when the direction or the strategy in which
the business performed is affected. Cultural changes affect the organizational rules
such as the way the business is conducted. Political changes occur primarily
due to changes that happen on top levels in the organization, those working on
the bottom level often notice the change at the top.





2.1.  Basic Concepts


            Strategic management
is a dynamic process of aligning strategies, performance and business results.
Effective combination of people, leadership, technology and processes along with
strategy and successful delivery makes a change successful. To survive and grow
the organization must define and grow internal competencies, develop and
maintain some rules and theories to create the future. The organization must grow
along with the changes or fall without adapting. The concept of strategic fit –
how well the organization should be measured to meet the requirements of the
strategic change. This context has both external dimensions (political,
socio-economic, technological, cultural and competitive) and internal dynamics
(organizational structure, skills resources, systems and culture). Strategy
gradually became how well an organization could anticipate and react to change
in its operating environment.



change is defined as “changes in the content of a firm’s strategy as defined by
its scope, resource deployments, competitive advantages, and synergy”
Hofer and Schendel 1978. In simple form strategic change is a way of changing
the objectives and vision of the company to obtain greater success. It does not
depend on the greatness of the strategy or how useful the change may be for the
organization, if you cannot make them understand to the people it’s worthless. A
strategic change must be good consideration about context compatibility between
the change and organization. It is obvious that changing something that people
used to do it for a long time is not easy.


2.2.  Literature Review

Kurt Lewin’s Three Step Planned Change Model

Lewin proposed a three-stage theory of change commonly referred to as Unfreeze,
Change (or Transition), Freeze (or Refreeze). The first step being the
unfreezing step include determining what needs to change, create the need for
change and getting ready to change. Lewin was aware that change is a step by
step process. This second stage is where we make the changes that are needed. This
stage is often the difficult as people are not aware whether the change is
going to be a success or a failure. The final of the three crucial steps is the
re-freezing step. Re-freezing suggests this stage is about implementing
stability after the changes have been done. Time plays a major role in
implementing a change. This rigidity of strategic change does not fit with
modern thinking of being continuous and it is a chaotic process in which great
flexibility is demanded. Lewin`s model is a logic model that shows the chain of
transformations that an organization must go through in a situation at a
desired period.


Kotter eight step Model

(1998) developed a model which should be used at the strategic level of an
organization to change its vision and subsequently transform the organization.
Each phase lasts a certain amount of time and mistakes at any phase can impact
the success of the change.

• Step 1: determine the urgency of change

• Step 2: form a strong nucleus, leading

• Step 3: create a new vision

• Step 4: notify all new vision

• Step 5: empower others to act on the

• Step 6: create a short-term win

• Step 7: maintain state of emergency

• Step 8: anchoring changes in corporate
culture (strengthen change)

Finally, to make any change stick, it
should become part of the core of the organization. If you lose the support of
these people, you might end up back where you started.


to McKinsey research, 70% of organizational transformation efforts
fail significantly short of fulfilling their change vision. I have
combined the key learnings from various articles and stories from great
organizations about the strategic change. The present study is based on the
secondary data. strategic change has dominated the theory and practice of
change management since Kurt Lewin`s work. In 2002 J.Kotter  came up with a new idea related to the change
process, because they are available for analysis which influences their
thinking. Collection of data, analysis and presentation of data are important
elements in the process of change, but change behavior analysis is the one that
pushes people into a process to feel the change.




model is a relatively simple design and can be used to develop cu. The most
important goals in the process of change, are: create a sense of urgency,
recruit powerful change leaders, build a vision and effectively communicate it,
remove obstacles, create quick wins, and build on your momentum. If you do
these things, you can help make the change part of your organizational culture.
That is how we declare that the change is successful. The elements in Kotter –
8 steps model is extremely important, but the core issue is the behavior – what
people do and that is how they need to be changed significantly react. The above-mentioned
models Kurt Lewin`s – 3 stage model and John Kotter – 8 steps model are the important
models that serve to implement the change in an organization. Since all models
are very specific, they are all inaccurate to some extent. The most important
aspect we need know whether they are useful – whether they help us to improve
and succeed.

Discussion and Outlook

challenges faced in change management are:

The challenges and problems faced
by the organization is related to the complexity and speed of change needed

There is no clear method for
change management and change management is not always successful.

Strategic change management does
not have a timeline during which the expected changes are completed.

It is highly important that all
members of an organization agree on the change management and are willing to
accept and work together for overcoming barriers.

Management should maintain
regular communication with their employees and ensure that any new information
or change implementation is done with all employees on board.

Employee resistance is a bigger
challenge for business organizations.


5.1.  Theoretical Implications

                After the discussion on the
models and their results, it is important to consider how strategic change is implemented
in the real world. The example of Nokia which was one of the leading makers of
the mobile handsets few years ago and which now finds itself at the bottom reminds
us that the strategic drift occurs without anyone noticing it and by
the time it gets noticed, it becomes too late. The collapse of once famous
companies like Chrysler pointed to the transformational change that was sudden
and radical in nature.The main aspect about strategic change is that it is
difficult to predict and control. Thus, it is important to deal with it by expecting
the unexpected and be ready for anything. The companies need to embrace change,
they are likely to be fail unless companies prepare to deal with sudden,
unpredictable, discontinuous, and radical change.


5.2.  Managerial Implications

to the managerial implications of the study, we find that differences in
professional discourse should be made explicit and be a constant point of
attention in teams. Managers typically think that it is not their role to
interfere in the details of change projects. Yet, by adhering to this
perspective, managers will use a specific discourse, specific kinds of speech
acts and certain negotiation styles, which might not be understood by other
professional groups. Thus, an explicit reflection on their own style and its
effects on the interaction dynamics could help managers to develop a broader
view on the implementation of change and possible resistance on the part of
employees, thereby creating more and new options for action.


5.3.  Limitations and Future research

study findings could have been complete if all the targeted changes like
organizational were considered. It is recommended that a similar study be
conducted with a different change but with a larger sample. Large sample size
will resolve part of the limitation on this study and particularly that which
relate to the number of articles studied