A predictor of health is based on
where people work, go to school, or live. Place determines what people are
exposed to, social environment, and what kind of food is available. Where
people live makes a difference on how long a person will live. The average life
expectancy in Midtown is 82.9 years. Less hospitalization depends on where one
lives. Midtown has one of the lowest rates of avoidable adult asthma
hospitalizations and the second-lowest rate of avoidable adult diabetes
hospitalizations in NYC. Research shows health is imbedded in where people live
and work, the quality of neighborhoods influences health.
Tobacco liquor and fast food are
some of the negative aspects in many urban cities that lead to higher rates in
chronic diseases. Adults in Midtown smoke and eat fruits and vegetables at the same
rate compared to all of NYC. Exposure to violence is also a major key in
unnatural causes that are harming Americans. The incarceration rate in Midtown
is half the Manhattan and the NYC rates and the injury assault rate is less
than one-third the citywide rate.
Midtown Manhattan’s total population
is 52,607 consisting of 68% White, 18% Asian, 8% Hispanic, 4% Black and 2%
Other. 84% reported their own health as “excellent”, “very good” or “good”. The
percent of adults without any health insurance in Midtown is now 12% which is much
lower than the past, before the Affordable Care Act was put into effect. There is
currently access to free and low-cost health resources in Midtown. The percent
of girls ages 13-17 years who have received all three doses of the HPV vaccine is
48%. The percent of adults who have had a flu vaccination is 43% and were ever
tested for HIV is 66%. Midtown is ranked first in the amount of most harmful
air pollutant, at 14.3 micrograms per cubic meter, the highest in the city.
Racism is a cause of health inequality and
differs from socioeconomic status because even if an individual’s socioeconomic
status is changed, race still has an ultimate effect on health. Racism limits
access to resources for which people can avoid risk for morbidity and mortality.
“Poor health outcomes tend to cluster in places that people of color call home
and where many residents live in poverty” (Mary T. Basset, MD, MPH).
Unfortunately, in our society it’s becoming increasingly
harder for racial and ethnic minorities to attain quality healthcare. There is
proven evidence that minorities experience more deaths from different chronic
diseases than nonminority’s. A patient that is discriminated against is less
likely to receive preventative care in the first place. Certain illnesses or
diseases are more common in some races than others, making the need for quality
healthcare that much higher. Lower income/wages and decreases in the number of
available jobs are contributors to some of the barriers minorities face in
their efforts to access healthcare. “This is unfair and avoidable. A person’s
health should not be determined by his or her ZIP code” (Mary T. Basset, MD,
As socioeconomic status increases, so
does health. This applies to individuals, neighborhoods, and countries.
Socioeconomic status is an economic and
sociological combined total measure of an individual’s or family’s economic and
social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and
occupation. The number one leading
cause of death in New York City is heart disease and in Midtown it is Cancer.
The second leading cause of death in Midtown is heart disease and third is the
flu or pneumonia.