According indicates that customers go through a five-stage

According to
Davis (1989), purchase intention is the dependent variable to be measured.
Understanding customer’s purchase intention is vital for any business. It is
the most factor that would likely lead to actual decision-making.

Purchase intention

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In order to
understand why people choose to use frozen fruits and vegetables, this writer’s
suggestion is to understand about the customer purchasing intention (also known
as purchase behavior). Intention is an underlying dimension of actual behavior.
It describes a person’s motivation to comply with a specific behavior (Ajen
& Fishbein, 1975). Following that idea, purchase intention could be defined
expectation to purchase a particular brand. People who need to purchase a
particular brand that they have decided for themselves after certain
assessment. We can measure purchase intention in some aspects such as the brand
of the product or intention to buy that brand in the future (Laroche and Zhou,
1996; MacKenzie and Belch, 1986; Laroche and Sadokierski, 1994). Purchase
intention may also measure the ability of a consumer to buy a product. In other
words, purchase intention has a positive relationship with consumer’s
willingness to buy a specific product (Schiffman & Kanuk, Dodds, et al.,
1991, 2000). Purchase intention shows that consumers will follow their own
experiences, preferences and external environment to gather information, assess
alternatives, and decide to buy or not (Dodds et al., 1991; Zeithaml, 1988; Yang,
2009; Schiffman & Kanuk, 2000;). To analyze the deep inside and the reason
why customer pick a product to purchase, we should know about the relationship
between internal and external factors through analyzing the process of
decision-making’s customer and factors affecting on consumer purchasing


Buyer Decision

According to
consumers’ buying indicates that customers go through a five-stage
decision-making process in any purchase. The diagram below summarizes the
individual stages followed by brief explanations.

Consumers’ Buying Process

 (“Consumer Buying Decision Process”, Leon,
Schiffman and Kanuk, 2006)

This model is
very important for everyone was force by marketers to consider the complete purchase
process rather than just buying decisions. The model shows that customers experiencing
five essential stages of each purchase. However, in more frequent purchases,
customers sometimes ignore some of the stages. Such like a customer decides to
purchase frozen fruits and vegetables, they have to evaluate a lot of factors
which follow the above steps. They have to search information, listen some
feedback from others and analyze that any data to pick a best decision. In
fact, the model is very important when it comes to understanding any purchase including
a few detail consideration (Jobber, 2001). More specifically, the whole process
of consumer behavior toward purchasing is shown in below figure, which involves
steps, and factors that have determining roles in consumer’s mind.


Figure 4: A
Model of Consumer Decision-Making













Schiffman L., Kanuk L., (2004) Consumer Behavior, International 8th
Edition, New Jersey Pearson Prentice Hall

“The process stage of the model focuses
on how consumers make decisions. The

psychological factors inherent in each
individual (motivation, perception, learning,

personality and attitudes) affect how the
external inputs from the input stage influence the

consumer’s recognition of a need,
pre-purchase search for information, and evaluation of

alternatives.” (Schiffman and Kanuk,

The information
segment draws on outside impacts that fill in as wellsprings of data about a
specific item and impact a purchaser’s item related esteems, dispositions, and
conduct. Boss among these information factors are the advertising blend
exercises of associations that endeavor to convey the advantages of their items
and administrations to potential shoppers and the non-promoting sociocultural
influencers, which, when disguised, influence the consumer’s purchase

Marketing inputs

The company’s
marketing activities are a direct effort to reach, inform, and persuade
consumers to buy and use their products. These inputs into the decision-making
process of consumers take the form of a specific marketing mix that includes
the product itself: direct marketing, mass media advertising, personal sales,
and endeavors. Other advertising, pricing policies and selection of
distribution channels to products from manufacturers to consumers.

Sociocultural inputs

Includes many non-commercial influences. Although
less tangible, the impact of the social class, culture and subgroup are critical
input variables that are internalized and influence how consumers assess and receive
(or dismiss) product.

The procedure
part of the model is worried about how purchasers decide. We must consider the
effect of psychological concepts in order to understand this concept. The
mental field speaks to the inside impacts (perception, personality, motivation,
attitudes and learning) affecting consumer’s decision-making processes. The act
of making a consumer decision consists of three stages:

Demand recognition

The acknowledge
of demand can happen when consumers encounter problems. There appear to be two
different needs or types of problem identification among consumers. Some
consumers, who are aware that they have problems when a product is not
available, are actual reality types. In contrast, other consumers who desire
something that can trigger the decision-making process, are the kind of state
they want.

Pre-purchase search

Pre-purchase search
begins when consumers are aware of the need to be satisfied when buying and using
products. The memory of the past encounters might give consumers with satisfactory
data to make current choices. On the other hand, when consumers have no previous
experience, they may have to engage in extensive outdoor search for valuable
information based on the selection. Searching for alternatives can be
classified as individual or irrelevant. Personal search alternatives include consumer
experience in the past with the product or service. They also include requests
for information and advice from friends, relatives, colleagues and sales

Evaluation of alternatives

When assessing
potential choices, customers tend to utilize two sorts of data: a rundown of
brands from which they intend to influence their choice and the criteria they
to will use to assess each brand.

The yield
segment of shopper basic leadership demonstrates concerns two intently related
sorts of post-decision activity: purchase behavior and post-purchase
evaluation. The goal of the two exercises is to build the customer’s
fulfillment with their purchases.

Purchase behavior

Three types of
purchases were made: trial purchases, repeat purchases, and long – term
commitment purchases. At the point when a customer buys an item out of the blue
and purchases a little amount than regular, this buy could be viewed as a
trial. A trial is the exploratory period of procurement conduct in which
purchaser endeavor to assess an item through direct utilize. At the point when
another brand in a set up item class is observed by trial to be more agreeable
or superior to anything different brands, buyers are probably going to rehash
the buy. Rehash buy conduct is firmly identified with the idea of brand
loyalty, which most companies try to encourage. Unlike trial, when consumers
use products on a small scale, without any commitment, a repeat purchase often signify
that the product meets with consumer’s approval and they are willing to use it
again with larger quantity.

Post-purchase evaluation

When consumers
use a product, especially during trial purchase, they assess its performance based
on their expectations. There are three conceivable results of these assessment:
the actual results match the expectations, resulting in a sense of neutrality;
performance exceeds expectations, causing what is called positive assertion of
expectation (leading to satisfaction); and performance is lower than expected,
causing negative denial of expectations and dissatisfaction.

Factors affecting consumer-purchasing behavior

The performance
of a free-market system business depends on the level of understanding the
customer is dealing with. However, one of the regular perspectives is that
understanding customer conduct has turned into a factor that directly affects
the general execution of the organizations (Kotler and Keller, 2012). The
investigation of purchaser conduct incorporates the investigation of what they
purchase, why they purchase, how they purchase, when they purchase, from where
they purchase, and how regularly they purchase. A liberal customer arranged
approach is basic in the present different worldwide commercial center so a
firm can recognize and serve its objective market, limit disappointment, and
remain in front of contenders. Last customers buy for individual, family, or
family utilize. However, various examines have been done by scholastics and researchers
on recognizing and breaking down those variables influencing the buyers’
purchasing conduct and accordingly, different sorts of elements have been
distinguished. These variables have been arranged into various sorts and
classifications in various routes by various creators. For example, Wiedermann
et al (2007) grouped them into interior and outer factor. Then again, Winer
(2009) separated them into social, individual and mental components. In
general, the main factors affecting consumer-buying behavior can be summarized
in four main groups: cultural, social, personal and psychological factors (Hill
and Gardner, 1987).

 (Buyer Characteristic, Kotler et al., 2005)

Figure 5:
Factors affecting consumer-purchasing behavior
Cultural factors

behavior is deeply impacted by cultural factors, including buyer culture,
subculture and social class. Culture is the most fundamental cause of one’s
desire and behavior. Children learn basic values, recognition and wishes from
their families and other important groups when growing up. Marketers are
attempting to discover “cultural changes” that can point to new
products which consumers want or needs.

Culture: is the total number of beliefs, values, and traditions that serve to coordinate
the consumer behavior of individuals of a specific society.

Subculture: a particular culture group existing as an identifiable section inside a
bigger, more complex society.

Social class: the division of individuals of a society
into chain of command of particular status classes, so that individuals of each
course have generally the same status and individuals of all other classes have
either more or less status.
Social factors

Social factors
also impact the buying behavior of consumers. The important social factors are:
reference groups, family, role and status. A customer’s buying behavior is also
influenced by social factors, such as the groups to which the customer belongs
and social status. Each culture contains “sub-cultures” – groups of people with
share values. Sub-cultures can include nationalities, religions, racial groups,
or groups of people sharing the same geographical location. Sometimes a
sub-culture will create a substantial and distinctive market segment of its
own. For example, the “youth culture” or “club culture” has quite distinct
values and buying characteristics from the much older “gray generation”.

Social factors
also affect the consumer’s buying behavior. The important social factors include
reference groups, families, roles and status. Customer buying behavior is also affected
by social factors such as the groups that the customer belongs to and the
social status. Each culture contains “subcultures”. Subcultures may involve
nationalities, racial groups, religions or groups of people that share the same
geographic location. Sometimes, substantial and distinctive market segment of an
own subculture will be created. For instance, “young culture” or
“club culture” has quite different values ??and shopping
characteristics from the older “gray generation”.

belonging to a particular social class tend to have similar beliefs, life
styles and buying patterns.

Reference group: Any person or group is considered to be the
point of comparison for an individual in the formulation of common or specific
values, attitudes or specific guidelines for behavior.

Family: Two or more people related to marriage, blood or adoption who live
together. There are three fundamental functions involved in consumer behavior: family
lifestyle, economic well-being and emotional support.

Roles and status: every individual has distinctive parts and
status in the society of the groups, families or organizations it belongs to.
Personal factors

factors can also influence the consumer behavior. Some of the critical personal
factors affecting the buying behavior are: personality, age, occupation, lifestyle,
self-concept and economic situation.

Age and life cycle stage: likely to affect buyers’ buying behavior.
Obviously shoppers change product and venture after a while.

Occupation: Significant influence on their buying behavior. For example, a promoting
leader of an association is trying to buy suitable suits, while a low-level
worker in a similar association buys a safe garment work.

Economic situation: Affects their buying behavior. On the
opportunity paid to pay a consumer’s savings is high, at that time will buy
many expensive items. In addition, a man with low wages and investment funds
bought shabby items.

Lifestyle: implies to the way a man lives in a public place and expresses things
in their condition. The customer’s advantages, sentiments, decide it and
exercises’ shapes their entire example of acting and cooperating on the

Personality: changes from individual to individual, time-to-time and place-to-put.
In this way, it can enormously influence the consumer buying behavior. In fact,
identity isn’t what one has, however, it the totality of the lead of a man in
various conditions. Having diverse attributes, for example, strength,
hostility, certainty… might be helpful to decide the behavior of customers for
a product.
Psychological factor

There are four critical
psychological factors influencing the consumer buying behavior like perception,
motivation, beliefs and learning. Consumers can belong to a variety of
reference group of people with whom the individual look for association,
information and standard of behavior. Their values beliefs can have significant
impact on consumer buying pattern. Customers have specific beliefs and
attitudes towards different products. Because these beliefs and attitudes
create a brand image and influence the customer’s buying behavior so that
marketers are occupied with them. Advertisers can change the convictions and
dispositions of customers by propelling exceptional battles in such manner.
Customers endeavor to decode the data in a way that will increase what the
customer has accepted. Thus, if there is the appearance of specific
maintenance, advertisers try to keep data in support of their beliefs.

Motivation: The level of inspiration also affects the buying behavior of the
customer. Individuals have special requirements, such as physical needs,
natural needs or social needs. The idea of the need is about 20 is more
important, while others less pressed. In this way, demand becomes a thought
process when it is most powerful to lead the searcher to completion.

Perception: Selecting, sorting and decoding data in an approach to create an
important challenge of the world is called discrimination. There are three
different cognitive procedures, special consideration, specific distortion and
specific retention.

Beliefs and attitudes: Customers have specific convictions and
states of mind for different commodities. Because of the convictions and states
of the mind that make up the brand image and influence the behavior of the
customer, so the merchants are occupied with them. Advertisers can change the
credibility and status of customers with crudes not so popular.