An certificate that a CA issues. This field
An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public keyinfrastructure standard to verify that a public key belongs to the user, computer or service identitycontained within the certificate. It usually contains information about the certificate holder, the signer, aunique serial number, expiration dates and some others related and required fields. Some of the X.509certificate fields are described below:1. Subject: It provides the names of the computer, user, network device, or service that the CA issuesthe certificate to. Subject is not just a single string. It is a distinguished name and in the ASN.1 notationis a sequence of several object identifiers with their corresponding values. The subject name iscommonly represented by using an X.500 or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) format.2. Serial Number: It provides unique identifier for each certificate that a CA issues. This field holds aunique serial number per certificate. The identity creating the certificate must assign it a serial numberthat distinguishes it from other certificates.3. Signature Algorithm Identifiers: It is the algorithm used by the issues to sign the certificate. Theissuing authority's signature.4. Issuer Name: It is the name of the entity issuing the certificate is issued to. It also provide adistinguished name for the CA that issued the certificate. The issuer name is commonly represented byusing an X.500 or LDAP format.5. Validity Period: There are two validity, they are valid to and valid from. Valid from provides the dateand time when the certificate becomes valid. And in the other hand, valid to provides the date and timewhen the certificate is no longer considered valid. It is the activation and expiration dates.6. Version: It indicate which X.509 version applies to the certificate. It is the field that indicates theversion of the certificate.7. Public Key Information: It contains the public key of the key pair that is associated with the certificate.The public key is associated with the identity.They are important for information security because they are basic of internet's public key infrastructurestandard, it defines a certificate format for binding public key to X.500 distinguished path names, itsupports both secret key cryptography and public key cryptography, its data record was originallydesigned to hold a password instead of a public key, etc. X.509 clearly describes certificates format, butlacks procedures for requesting and procuring certificates.The various cryptographic functions are described below:1. Symmetric function: it may also be referred to as shared key or shared secret encryption, in thisfunction, a single key is used both to encrypt and decrypt traffic. Its algorithm includes DES, 3DES, AESand RC4. Its algorithm can be extremely fast and their relatively low complexity allows for easyimplementation in hardware. However, they required that all hosts participating in the encryption havealready been configured with the secret key through some external means.2. Asymmetric function: It is also known as public key cryptography. It differs from symmetric primarilyin that two keys are used, they are one for encryption and one for decryption. Its most commonalgorithm is RSA. In compared to symmetric, it imposes a high computational burden and tends to bemuch slower. It isn't typically employed protect payload data. Its major strength is its ability to establisha secure channel over a nonsense medium.3. Hashing function: It is a form of cryptography security which differs from encryption. It is used only toverify data, the original messages cannot be retrieved from a hash. When used to authenticate securecommunications, a hash is typically the result of the original message plus a secret key. Hashingalgorithm are also commonly used without a secret key simply for error checking.