Another 2.5 pm, Nitrogen is 3 pm, Oxygen
Another trend on the periodic table that has a significant importance and a very notable pattern vertically and across is electronegativity. Electronegativity can be measured by the attraction one atom gives off to another to gain, take, or share the other atom’s electron(s). Using the “Electronegativity vs. Atomic Number” chart, it is shown that across a period and going from left to right of the periodic table, the electronegativity increases. For example, in period 2, Lithium has the electronegativity of 1 pm, Beryllium is 1.5 pm, Boron is 2 pm, Carbon is 2.5 pm, Nitrogen is 3 pm, Oxygen is. 3.5 pm, and Fluorine is 4 pm. The reason for this trend is that as you keep going across the periodic table, the protons increase, meaning the charges in the nucleus does too. This newfound energy attracts more electrons very heavily as strongly, overall increasing it’s electronegativity. Because metals have lower amounts of valence electrons, they increase their stability by becoming cations, being positively charged but also, giving them lower electronegativities, and it’s the opposite for the non-metals that become anions with high electronegativities, On the other hand, it is also shown that down a group, going top to bottom of the periodic table, the electronegativity decreases. For example, in group 6, Oxygen has the electronegativity of 3.5 pm, Sulfur is 2.5 pm, Selenium is 2.4, Tellurium is 2.1 pm, and Polonium is 2.0pm. The reason for this trend is due to to electron shielding. During electron shielding, the orbital fills up and in this process, the electrons act as a shield between the positively charged core an atom may have and the negatively charged electrons of another atom could have. Because opposite energies attract, the barrier of more electrons decreases the attraction an atom has towards another, overall decreasing electronegativity.The electronegativity is important for chemical bonding because it generally determines if there’s going to be a bond between one or more atoms or not and what kind of bond it would be. The bonds between the atoms will either be polar covalent, non polar covalent, or ionic and a lot of it depends on the electronegativity of the atoms and their attraction to others.