Article 1: The changes of social structure and migration in cities inAlbaniaMatilda Likaj Lecturer, Faculty of Economics and AdministrativeSciences, Epoka University.Cemal Baltac? Assist Prof. Dr., Faculty of Economics andAdministrative Sciences, EpokaUniversity.1) The main issues disscused in this paper are the political and social changes, urbanization andsocial problems that appeared in Albanian society after 1990’s. Also the effect that have appearto social values by the change of social structure and the formation of the new conscious inAlbanian society.2) The above issue is important because urbanization takes an important place, not only bygetting modern standards but also it gets a growth of population and changes in many structureof societies. Many times in social science like sociology concept of urbanization is called as adynamic structure that gets physical and social changes. Changes that come from urbanization,affect all structure of society like norms, values, traditions, way of life etc.After 1990s in Albaniastarted major changes in the social, cultural, politic and economic structures. This process wasaffected from a new and modern civilization and also was called as transition.3) There is a detailed and easy to understand literature review presented in this study. Thisissue first started with the Collapse of the Berlin’s wall, which gave courage to Albanianintellectuals and students to protest for the collapse of communism system and to get newpolitical, socialand cultural system. After 1990s in Albania started major changes in the social, cultural, politicand economic structures. This process was affected from a new and modern civilization andalso was called as transition. A part of transition was migration and emigration waves. Thesekind of waves were causing form the collapse of communisms laws (In communism wasforbidden to pass form a country, city, village to another one without having a strongreason).People needed something new in their life style and they tried to find it by changing theplace where they lived.4) The method used starts by explaining the begining of the protests, when and and whythey started in the first place, and by who. Then it gives us a deffinition of”Urbanization”, what is it and what are it’s effects. Also it analyses Migration of Peoplefrom Rural to Urban Places and The Changes of Values.5) Urbanization in Albania have brought many changes in the Albanian society. Changes that comefrom urbanization, affect all structure of society like norms, values, traditions, way of life etc.Urbanization gets a renovation of a social structure by changing social structure.Most of valuesthat were formed in the communism system started become old and unimportant value. .Afterthe collapsed of communism Albanian cultures were so influenced from Italian and WesternEuropean cultures. These cultures influenced almost at the all institutions, relationships betweenpeople, lifestyles, mentality of people etc. One of the structures that changed from the transitionin Albania was the family structure. In a family are founded more than twogeneration with different mentality. This difference was expressed by values that many time gotconflict between generations.ARTICLE 2: Urbanization of Post-communist Albania: Economic,Social, and Environmental ChallengesDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern EuropeDorina Pojani The University of Queensland1) The purpose of this article is to describe some of the critical urban and social transformations inAlbania since the fall of communism in 1990 and their economic, social, and environmentalconsequences, and to respond to some of the negative views about the greatly increasedurbanization. This article discusses the benefits as well as harms of urbanization in Albania andargues that, in balance, urbanization is a positive force.2) The above issue is important because in Albania, policymakers, urban planners, theorists,and the general public haveunderstandably been very concerned with the speed and magnitude of urban growth in Albania,especially of Tirana, and typically perceive it as negative. Urban developments are commonlyreferred to in the press as “the urban massacre.”3) There is a extended and really detailed literature review in this article. The introductionpresents the problem of the urbanization and gives some reasons why it happens. First, it was anexpression of a long-standing desire to move to urban areas, which was repressed in the past bycommunist era controls on mobility. Second, in the post-communist years many villagesand towns were depleted of professional services.Third, in many regions, people were forced toleave rural areas in order to survive. However it seems that this article argues that urbanization isa positive form because it analyses some positive factors that urbanization have had in outcountry.4) The article starts with some general information about the urbanization in its begginings.Then it reveals data about how the population have moved from rural to urban zone, followedby detailed analysis of the factors that have affect in urbanization, and then the effect thaturbanization itself had in Albania.5) Albania’s rapid urbanization has been central to its post-communist transformation to amarket economy and democratic government. Albania’s larger cities and its capital in particularhave definite advantages over rural areas and small towns, which outweigh the disadvantages.Meanwhile, urbanization has contributed to a host of problems. These emerging problems areinherent to the very nature of urbanization. Poor governance and a negative attitude tonewcomers and their impact on urban growth partially explain why urbanization has not been anexclusively positive development in Albania. Other reasons include poverty and the impact ofurbanization on traditional social structures. Solutions are not simple; nor are there readilyavailable models from other countries that Albanian cities could adopt.Article 3: Migration as a Challenge for Albanian Post CommunistSocietyPh.D Cand. Matilda LikajDepartment of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Bedër University, Tirana, Albania e-mail:[email protected]) The objectives of this articles are going to be focus on analyze of internal and internationalAlbanian migration during post communist period till nowadays. During analyze of thisphenomena is going to take into consideration social changes, social capital and its effect on theAlbanian society challenges. . Also this article discusses Albanian migration phenomena andanalyzes its effects of social changes and social capital in society.2) This issue is important because the process of migration, both internal and international one,has increasingly been seen asinvolving economic, political and demographic changes, as well as processes of urbanization andmodernization. Migration has profound social, cultural and economic consequences forindividuals, families, communities, society, regions and the country as a whole. The effect ofmigration is reflected in the population decreasing and the massive urbanization of some areasand de-urbanization of others, increased differentiations among social and economicalstratifications that reflect to the integration of migrants, dynamic changes in the gender and theage or demography of the population.3) There is a detailed literature review on this article. Two are the main research questionsexplained in this article: 1) Migration Phenomena and its Challenges in Home Society, sayingthat migration is a very complex phenomena in the perspective of socio-cultural and economiclife. Human migration is the movement of people from one country to another for the purpose oftaking up permanent or semi permanent residence, usually across a political boundary.2) Albanian Migration: Its Effects on Social Changes and Social Capital in Society, where itexplains that migration, whether rural to urban or international, has emerged as the mostcommon livelihood coping strategy in Albania, and has served as an important escape valve forunemployment and other economic difficulties brought on by the transition to a market economy4) The method used strats with giving a short historical information about the comunism inBallkan and how Albania was influenced by it. Followed by information related to the processof migration: what causes migration, and what migration itself causes, what are its effects? Thenit analysis to main research questions such as 1) Migration Phenomenia and 2) AlbanianMigration. They both cause changes and affect the society of one country but not only.5) Migration (in and out of Albania) involves a series of events that can be challenge for society.Sometimes, the process involves uprooting, being separated from traditional values, beingplaced in new social and cultural different situations of society. Also these changes may beappearing in the huge social changes and the fade of social capital of social structure. Migrationphenomena impact s also on the reorganization of social structure. The flow of young people asa work force outside Albania leads to the lack of population dynamism and anomies in thesocio-cultural structure of Albania.ARTICLE 4 : Albanian migration during the post communisttransition and the European integration in global era.An intercultural reflectionDott. Agim Leka, PhD Candidate University “A Xhuvani”, Elbasan,Albania Member of Parliament , Albania1) Miiigration is a human experience, which has arisen and developed in relation to thehuman society itself. In our era, immigration is associated with the integration and theglobalization. Immigration is a modern intercommunications between cultures in a worldincreasingly with more multicultural, or in a world with a hybrid culture. Therefore migration isthe most highlighted issue in this article since it affects us in many different ways.2) The above issue is important because the migration is a part of existence and the history ofAlbanian. The migration, has been started at least in the xi century. In xiv-xv century theAlbanian emigration had assumed as an exodus. The biggest wave of migration of Albanianpeople happened after death of the Albanian national hero Gjergj Kastrioti (Scanderbeg)(1468-1744). After the creation of the independent Albanian modern state (28 November1912) the migration flows of Albanians continued.3) The literature review presented in this study is too detailed. It gives us many information andalso data and tables where there are specific information about what causes emigration andmigration flows across the world. It also has many quotations from different individs. Besidesthat, this article analysis migration adn emigration from its roots, when it first started in1468-1744, after the death of Skanderbeg.4) The method used starts with providing information about emigration as a subject study ofTransitology, followed by a short history of Albanian emigration, which explains the times whenmigration first started. It also gives us data on what causes emigration. The most disscusedphenomens are: The Albanian emigrants durin the trasition times, The integration of Albanianemigrants, and Integration as a cultural intercommunication.ARTICLE 5 : Population Association of America annual meeting2016, Washington D.C. Session 14: New Directions in MigrationResearchInternal and international migrations across the urbanhierarchy in AlbaniaMathias LerchMax Planck Institute for Demographic ResearchKonrad-Zuse-Str. 1,18057 Rostock – [email protected]) This article aims to analyse internal and international movements across the urban hierarchyand the urban-rural continuum in post-communist Albania, in order to increase understanding ofpopulation mobility. Results reveal a large-scale onset of rural-to-urban migration, despite thecrisis in the 1990s. Internal migrants focused towards peripheral cities and the capital, bypassingsecondary centers.2) This issues is important because post-Communist Albania experienced a rapid catch up inurbanization and large-scale emigration from both rural and urban areas (Azzari and Carletto2009; Lerch 2014). We adopt a longitudinal and geographical sending-country perspective totest the hypothesis of mobility transition (Zelinsky 1971). This model predicts an increase andsubsequent decrease in rural-to-urban and international movements (hereafter also referred toas out-/in-migration and e- /immigration, respectively) during the modernization process.3) Almost the entire literature review in this article is associated with data and quotations. Thisarticle gives us detailed information about migration and emigration in post – comunist Albania.4) The method used starts with providing general information about the issues caused byemigration and migration. Followed by information about The Albanian context, The mobilitytransition and its mediating factorys, Data and Methods etc.All these analysis give us a better idea for migration and emigration and their effects in Albaniansociety but not only.5) In order to contribute to the understanding of the process of Albania’s urbanization, weinvestigated the diffusion of both types of migrations across the urban hierarchy and the sexes,using retrospective survey data. The country is an interesting case to test the hypothesis ofmobility transition because of its sharp increase in population mobility during the post-communistcrisis, as well as its continuous urbanization and emigration in the subsequent period ofeconomic and political consolidation.