ASSESSMENT teachers, learners, or their peers, to

ASSESSMENT is defined as
measurement of the learner’s achievement and progress in a learning
process 3, 4. In an often-cited article describing how formative
assessment improves
achievement, Sadler 5 concludes
that it hinges on developing students’ capacity
to
monitor the quality
oftheir own work during production.

Two major forms of
assessment exist: formative and summative
assessments 6, 7. Summative assessment measures
what students have learned at the end of a course, or after some defined
period 8. It can also refer to certifying that the required
levels of competence have been achieved 6. In general,
summative assessment includes scoring for the purposes of awarding
a grade or other forms of accreditation. Oosterhof et al. 7
research on online
assessment literature endorses
that summative assessment is considered suitable for certifying
a learner’s final achievements.

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Formative assessment is commonly applied in the classroom
as a source of ongoing
feedback with the aim to improve teaching and learning 8. It can also be referred
to as assessment for learning that occurs during the course of instruction with the aim to support
learning 7. Formative assessment activities are embedded
within instructions to monitor learning and assess learners understanding
for
the purposes of modifying instruction and informing further learning through ongoing and timely feedback until the
desired level of knowledge has been achieved.
Black et al. 9 noted that practice in a classroom
is formative to the extent that evidence
about student achievement is elicited, interpreted, and used by teachers, learners, or their peers, to make decisions
about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better,
or better founded,
than the decisions they would have taken in the absence
of the evidence
that was elicited.

In
the classroom the formal assessment is done through assignments, tests, quizzes, performances, projects,
and surveys; or informally through questioning and dialogue, observing, and note taking. In any of these instances, teachers and students
may or may not be engaged in formative assessment: the determining factor is not the type of assessment they use,
but rather how they use the information to create an authentic learning environments which can influence learner engagement. Unless all members of an educational environment (teachers, students etc.) come to understand their strengths
and weaknesses, and how they
might deal with them, they will not make progress in enhancing learning and teaching performance. “Formative assessment, therefore, is essentially feedback 10 both to the  teachers and
to the  pupil about present understanding and skill development in order to determine the way forward.” 1

The
objective of this research is to use formative assessment to increase students’ responsibility for the setting of their learning targets
and
also for the
monitoring or tracking of those
targets. This research
also focuses on how educational data mining techniques can be used to design
an early warning system to improve
students’ achievement and minimize the drop rate.

The
determination of developing a formative
assessment model is to aggregate
strategies for helping students motivate themselves. The real time skill
assessment (RTSA) model is an iterative framework that  provides teachers
a possibility for enriching student motivation and make them self-aware
 of their knowledge; and helps in developing a culture of using the model’s
outcome data to improve
the drop rates 9 by focusing on less mastered
skills. The proposed model represents a diverse
array of interventions with the following characteristics: the use of classroom
discussions, classroom tasks, and homework to determine
the current state of student learning and understanding of a specific; the provision of descriptive feedback, with guidance on how to improve,
during the learning; and the development of student
self- and peer- assessment skills.
This model proposes
some techniques to be used in the classroom to collect evidence of student learning,
and to provide information needed to adjust
teaching and learning while they are still happening:

1-      
Acquiring skills: classroom and questions dialog are unmeasurable but engage students and expands their learning. Asking better
questions affords students an opportunity for deeper thinking and provides
teachers with significant insight into the degree and depth of student
understanding.

2-      
Constructive quizzes: Periodic quizzes
can be used during the formative
assessment process
to monitor student learning and adjust instruction during a lesson.
Constructive quizzes will not only furnish teachers
with feedback on their students, but they serve to help students
evaluate their own learning. The teacher should use the results of these quizzes
to adjust instruction immediately based on student outcomes. Constructive quizzes are a good way to add movement
in the classroom and
allow teachers to
determine the depth of student learning to inform their instructional decisions.

3-      
Group Assessment such as Think-Pair-Share 11  and Four Corners are quick strategies that can be used effectively in RTSA model  for
gauging student understanding. These activities ensure that all students are interacting with the information. Students can discuss
the solution method. The teacher
can listen to student
discussions and determine who has information who does not.

4- Visual representation of the student
self- evaluation skill. This quick way of assessing
student depth of understanding regarding
a specific skill allows the teacher to  adjust instruction immediately to address
student needs and allows student
to learn how to self-assess his knowledge.

Student learning information collected during the first iteration of the model is valuable in making corrections and changes 15. However , evaluating the accuracy of the self- ass cycle with considerations for assessing skill knowledge process, as the student
“learns how to self-assess his/her knowledge”, is useful to enhance
education by improving
the knowledge of low performing students through adopting adequate
interventions to help student succeed (as tutoring sessions, video tutorials etc.) The iterative
approach to self- assessment is that the student eventually gets good at it. But what constitutes “goodness?” “Good”
would be defined
as accuracy
in measuring the self- assessment of how well the student knows the subject
versus his/real grade in the exam. The trick is expressing those assessments in such a way as to make them measurable. Tracking these metrics in each time cycle will give the student
the ability to measure improvements
in
self-ass, but also guide decision making on what type of interventions is needed to enhance learning 16. To analyse the self-assessment effectiveness we use the model of iterative processes
for the assessment-correction cycles 17. In this model A0 is the value of the initial assessment, A1 is the value of assessment in one iteration, A2 is the value of assessment in one iteration, pi is the probability of the ith entrance in the correction cycle. We assume that pi is decreasing with every new cycle and use the following approximation. 
Where 

  is the coefficient which specifies the decrease in the probability of entering
the iteration cycle. If one has gathered statistics for p1 and p2 then the effectiveness of the iterative assessment is evaluated with the following formula.
Self-assessment is used to evaluate the effectiveness learning
and instructional activities and demonstrate professional development. Self-assessment of learning
within an active
learning paradigm was conducted over a semester. The assessment correction (A) was blended
with qualitative data collection and analysis
methods. (A) was an effective
self- assessment formula and provided
proof of the good model design and delivery strategies to meet student learning goals and teach them to self-assess their knowledge. In fact, the self- assessment reduces considerably the value of A1. The RTSA model starts by providing
students with a clear and understandable vision of the learning
target. It offers regular descriptive feedback
and teach students to self-assess and set goals 18. The model helps students
to identify and communicate the learning and performance goals; to self- assess current
levels of understanding; and to provide the student with strategies and skills to reach the goal. The
implementation of this model indicates
that online formative  assessment  can  engage
 learners  in
 meaningful addressing the fundamental issues discussed in the preceding section,
RTSA is as an innovative strategy facilitating formative
and immediate feedback, engagement with critical learning
processes, and promoting equitable education 20. Our findings suggest that real time formative
assessment can provide a means to align assessment with teaching and learning,
and inevitably change how learning and assessment occur.

Self-assessment of learning
is necessary to
document student accomplishment and recognize growth of graduation rate. Further empirical research about real time formative assessment will require a systematic
and rigorous approach in order to achieve
more useful findings
that can inform effective practices. One way forward would be to conduct the research throughout different department within various courses grounded
within congruent theoretical perspectives, making those perspectives explicit along with the teacher’s beliefs as well as uncovering important professional development and organizational characteristics and
factors. There is also need to foster assessment strategies shared understanding among students
about what is valued
in assessment and their roles within this process
in order to achieve
desirable educational outcomes
22.