Attitudes is one of
the main aspects present in culture.
Attitudes is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and
behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or
symbols. It describes views about the social world. One obvious way in which we
can acquire an attitude towards something is through direct experience, but
much attitude acquisition seems to be based on attitudes held by others. For
instance, parents and care givers are significant sources of attitudes.
Friends, school and media take an important role in developing children
attitudes as well.
Certain attitudes differ across culture. According to Markus
and Kitamaya(1991), they argued that independent or individualistic cultures
offer a different view of the self than
that offered by interdependent or collectivistic cultures. In a broad
term, Western culture is often found to emphasise individualistic values, an
independent sense of self and giving priority to one’s own aspirations. People
from countries that emphasise individualism, such as North America and Western
Europe tend to see themselves as separation from others and suggest uniqueness.
They are not concern with others’ view about what is ‘appropriate’ and not
willing to control their self-expression.
By contrast, Eastern cultures prioritise collectivistic
values, a sense of interdependence, and support the ambitions of the community
or other significant social groups. People from collectivistic cultures, such
as Japan and many parts of Asia, tend to see themselves as connected with
others and suggest similarity. They
concern with social appropriateness of
behaviour and willing to control their self-expressions.
However, this contrast should not be drawn too sharply. It
is likely that there are some cultures do not fit well into either category. In
addition, there may be some cultural change that have an impact on the attitudes. It could be migration and
globalisation. For example, children of emigrant parents will experience multi
cultures when they are being socialised. Such children are said to be
‘bicultural’ or even ‘third culture’ child.