BACKGROUND methodologies. (Suja D1,et al, 2017). CITRUS SINENSIS
It is estimated by The World
Health Organization (WHO) that 80% of the individuals of emerging countries
depend on traditional medicines, usually
plant-originated drugs, for their major health needs (S. Indradevi, et al.
2012)because fruits and
juices are nutrient rich foods which provide vitamins, minerals and other
bioactive compounds with few calories (Ribeiro C,et al.2017). In past few
years, interest in using natural products for pharmacological purpose has
tremendously increased (Silmara Baroni,et al.2016).
Citrus fruits belong to kingdom
Plantae, the Rutaceae family and Citrus genera and are grown all over the
world. These fruits include, lemon (Citrus limonum), grapefruit (Citrus vitis), lime (Citrus
aurantifulia), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet orange (Citrus
sinensis)(Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu et al.2016) . Citrus fruits are highly nutritious, medicinal and constitute
0.9% of daily calorie intake and about 1.7% of carbohydrate intake. The peel
waste of citrus fruit is highly fresh and seasonal in terms of wealth for the
farmers if the industries bring useful products from them by evolving
different methodologies. (Suja D1,et al, 2017).
An orange fruit namely Citrus sinensis belongs to genus Citrus and Rutaceae family
is among the most important crops grown throughout the world. (Ngele, K.K. ,et al. 2014) with about 60% of the total citrus world production. Antioxidant and
antibacterial activity of orange juice and its edible portion have been
reported in many studies. (A.E.
Hegazy,et al. 2012).
PHYTOCHEMICALS IN ORANGE
The peel of Citrus sinensis is rich in flavonoids including methylated
derivatives such as polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) Alexander Gosslaua, et
al. 2014) which are rarely found in other
plants. The peel also contain
other constituents such as carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids
and anthocyanins (Roberta Fusco,et al. 2016). The evaluation of its ethanolic peel extract
indicated the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, fixed
oils, phenols and steroids while the inner white layer of orange peel contain
hesperidin which releases its aglycone portion that is hesperetin on
indigestion (Sharma pradeep kumar, et al. 2014).
ROLE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS
Phytochemicals not only play an
important in ecological and physiological functions but are also used
commercially because of their multiple applications in food and pharmaceutical
industries (F. GÜLAY KIRBA?LAR, et al.
2009). These compounds boost immunity, aids
digestion, promote healthy skin and are used as vitamin-packed flavouring
agents (J.O. Arawande, et al.
2015. They are highly potent in decreasing plasma
cholesterol level so have an inverse relation with coronary heart disease (Nesrin M. Fayek, et
al 2017). Orange peel extract may function
as surfactant by decreasing the surface tension of liquids in the stomach, decreasing the potential for the fluid to
splash up into the oesophagus. Researches show that orange peel extract
inhibits the growth and division of cancer cells (Narjis Hadi Mansoor Al-Saadi, et
al 2009). Orange peel oil has lethal effect on
fleas, fire ants, houseflies due to its 90-95% limonene while the roasted pulp
and fresh peel are used for skin dressing and acne treatment respectively.
Oranges are eaten to relieve fever and potion of the immature fruit is taken to
relieve gastrointestinal complaints. Plants containing protoberberines,
oligosaccharides, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloid, and phylates are used in the
African traditional system and show antimicrobial activity (Uchechi N. Ekwenye,
et al. 2010).
ROLE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN ANTI
Bacteria have the inborn ability to
transfer and gain resistance against the drugs which are used in therapeutics.
It’s been a long time that plants have been a good source of natural products
for conserving human health therefore the use of plant extracts and phytochemicals
which are synthesized in secondary metabolism of the plant having well-known
antimicrobial properties, can be of great importance in therapeutics or
alternative remedies. The active substances in these products include phenolic
compounds which are a part of the essential oils, as well as tannin. Essential
oils are quite more effective in controlling biofilm cultures due to their
better diffusing ability and interaction. (Maruti J.
Dhanavade, et al. 2011).
Screening of crude extract shows that
although the compounds may not have their own string antibacterial activity but
can be used in combination with antibiotics increase the efficacy of the drug
by different modes of actions. (IqbalAhmad, et al. 2007).