Breaking Down, Matesanz-Rodriguez Purpose and HypothesisThis experiment was

Breaking it Down Chemistry Experimental Investigation      ___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher ___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherAdriana Matesanz-Rodriguez640 W. Scott St.Chicago, IL 60610                                                                                                                            Grade 8Breaking It Down, Matesanz-Rodriguez Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4Review of Literature Page 5-6Materials and Procedure Page 7-8Results Page 9-10Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 11-12Reference List Page 13-14                     Breaking It Down, Matesanz-Rodriguez AcknowledgmentsThank you to my mother and father, for providing me with the materials.                         Breaking It Down, Matesanz-Rodriguez Purpose and HypothesisThis experiment was one from the branch of chemistry, specifically, electrochemistry. The question posed was “What electrolyte conducts electricity best during the electrolysis of water, therefore, the experiment’s purpose was to find out which, out of sea salt, table salt, lemon juice, orange juice, electrolyte would conduct the best amid electrolysis of water. It was predicted that the lemon juice would have the best effect, because of its acidic qualities, since strong acids more often than not are strong electrolytes and carry electricity better, due to their tendency to dissociate in water.                Breaking It Down, Matesanz-Rodriguez Review of LiteratureWater electrolysis is the process where water is split into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity. It’s form of electricity and hydrogen production, and from water, which is a renewable resource, no less( https://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-production-electrolysis). To put this into effect, electrolytes are required. An electrolyte is a chemical compound that, once dissolved or molten, ionize to cultivate an “electrically conductive medium” (http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-electrolytes.html). Some of the most common and essential minerals we see daily are electrolytes. These include sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium. Normally, a strong acid, a strong base, or a salt will be an able electrolyte. Weak acids, bases, and most molecules that contain nitrogen will be unable electrolytes. Only electrolytes that completely ionize when dissolved, and have no neutral molecule formed in the solution, can be considered strong.To begin electrolysis, you must have a power source, an electrical conductor, and, as previously mentioned, an electrolyte. Conductors made from easily accessible materials include pencils(graphite), and completely metallic tacks. The cathode and anode of your power supply(like a battery), will produce hydrogen and oxygen when reacting with water. The chemical formula for the reaction taking place in the anode is 2H2O ? O2 + 4H+ + 4e (https://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-production-electrolysis) . The reaction taking place in the cathode is as follows  4H+ + 4e- ? 2H2. Water electrolysis will then break down the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms, surrounding your conductor, and rising from it.Baking soda, also known as sodium bicarbonate, is a strong electrolyte when mixed with most liquids. In the human body, it helps deliver oxygen(http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/baking-soda-electrolytes-12472.html). If mixed with water, it can produce electrical currents, hydrogen, oxygen, and possibly, carbon dioxide. Lemon juice, in contrast, is an acid, and because it dissociates in water, can carry ions. Table salt, or sodium chloride, will split into Na+ and Cl- ions in water, which carries the flow of electrical charges very well.           Breaking It Down, Matesanz-RodriguezMaterials and ProcedureThe materials needed for this experiment are as follows:5 plastic cups2.46 milliliters of lemon juice/lemon(must be squeezed straight from a lemon)2.46 milliliters baking soda2.46 milliliters of orange juice/orange(must be squeezed straight from orange)2.46 milliliters of table(iodized) salt2.46 milliliters of sea salt10+ metallic tacksOne 9v batteryTap water*Note: 2.46 milliliters is equal to ½ teaspoon**These materials can be found a local grocery stores, hardware stores, etc.Once the material were have been gathered, two tacks were pushed through the bottom of the cup. They must be spread apart the same distance as the two terminals of the battery. Then,  the cup was carefully filled with 118.294 milliliters of water(½ cup). Next, the 2.46 milliliters of lemon juice had to be added. After it was stirred slightly(not overdone), the two terminals of the battery were pressed to the tacks. Alternatively, the cup could have been balanced on the twoterminals, after the tacks had been correctly placed, but that is difficult and creates a precarious structure. Afterwards, observations were recorded, and the experiment was recorded with the other mix-ins.Breaking It Down, Matesanz-RodriguezResults When the the terminals of the battery were connected no two reactions were precisely the same, but there was a general expectancy. First, when the battery was connected to the two tacks, bubbles, a gas, would start to rise from the tacks. However, it turned out, that the gas would only rise from the tack that was touching the battery’s largest terminal, the one on the left. The bubbles would, of course, dissipate as soon as they reached the water’s surface, the gas ceasing to be visible. It was also noted that, depending on the solution, no, few or many bubbles may cling to or gather around the tack.MixtureObservationsTap Water and Lemon JuiceGas rises wispily, looking a lot like smoke. Gas head in a diagonal direction, and moves pulp around. Gas also seems to rise in bunches and short bursts. Pulp gathers around tacks, and one or two stray bubbles cling to the tack.Tap Water and Baking SodaFast moving gas. When touched to the two terminals of the battery in first instance, bubbles gather around the pinprick of the tack, and rise in a steady jet upward until it reaches the surface. When removed, the jet stops; when replaced, it begins once more. Baking soda seems to gather around the tacks. A few bubbles are on the tack.Tap Water and Sea SaltGas expels fluidly and swiftly, in a straight stream upwards. Bubbles circle at the surface about the size of the tack base, then dissipates. Bubbles seem to surround the pinpoint, but metal is still visible.Tap Water and Table Salt (Iodized Salt) Gas moves upward in the most continuous stream yet. Additionally and newly, a faint hissing sound can be heard. Bubbles/gas completely cover the metal tack, and this reaction seems to be the strongest yet.Tap Water and Orange JuiceOne large bubble clings to the bottom, and a few small ones held on the tip. Other than that, no reaction.Additional Notes-Tacks need to be replaced constantly. When connected to the battery, the seemed to rust, turning black, and no longer holding electrical current-Gas produced is mainly hydrogen and oxygen, the two elements water is made of, as electrolysis splits water molecules. Breaking It Down, Matesanz-RodriguezConclusion, Reflection, ApplicationThe purpose of this experiment, was to find out which, out of the electrolyte-induced material used, was the best conductor for water electrolysis. Of course, this was measured by qualitative data of how much gas(hydrogen and oxygen) was produced. The electrolytes used were provided by lemon juice, orange juice, baking soda, table salt, and sea salt. The hypothesis was that lemon juice would be the best conductor because of its acidic qualities; that was incorrect. The best electrolyte was the table(iodized) salt. Based on observations, this mixture produced the steadiest stream of and most gas. Sodium seems the strongest option for water electrolysis, because it splits into Na+ and Cl- ions, both which are excellent at carrying current. This test was, for the most part, fair. To heighten the accuracy, the tacks could have been replaced more frequently, such as after every test instead of every other, or so. The reason being that some of their conductivity was observed to lower when used too often. It might also broaden results and possibilities to test materials with other electrolytes, calcium and potassium, just to get a larger range of electrolytes. To take it further, it could also be interesting to find out the exact gases being released, how to dilute the, and how to contain them. This experiment was one of electrochemistry. It goes into the makeup of compounds, in this case water, and pure element forms/atoms because of how it breaks the compound of water back into hydrogen and oxygen, and also explains what natural materials help conduct electricity/are electricity. The general base of this experiment (electrolysis of water) is important because it’s an encouraging option for hydrogen production, from a renewable resource(water), no less. Since, with the right electricity source, hydrogen production via electrolysis can result in zero greenhouse gases. However, the fuel and power source needs to be carefully chosen, to ensure it’s renewable and with no risks. It’s in big relation to our lives because, not only does it have to do with things we use every day: electrolytes, batteries, water, etc., but it’s a potentially promising way to produce electricity and hydrogen. Not without human help, though. The power used today is not ideal for encouraging it, and could result in greenhouse gases. With experiment’s like this one, it’s possible to find out how to go through with electrolysis in the future.Breaking It Down, Matesanz-RodriguezReference List-Bar Products Digital image. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.barproducts.com/barconic-9-ounce-clear-plastic-cup-Duracell, 9V Battery, American Version Digital image. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dv247.com/guitars/duracell-9v-battery–215258-Metal Flat Head Pin Digital image. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://all-tag.com/portfolio-items/metal-flat-head-pin/-SFGate. Baking Soda and Electrolytes. Retrieved from http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/baking-soda-electrolytes-12472.html-Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Resources. Hydrogen Production: Electrolysis. Retrieved from https://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-production-electrolysis –  University of Waterloo. Weak Acids and Bases. Retrieved from http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/wkacids.html -Your Dictionary. Example of Electrolytes. Retrieved from http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-electrolytes.html-Bodner Research Web. Solubility. Retrieved from http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch18/soluble.php -Purdue University. 20.2 The Electrolysis of Water. Retrieved from http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/demos/moviesheets/20.2.html -Chaplin, M. Electrolysis of Water. Retrieved from http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/electrolysis.html -Helmestin, A.(2017, September 24). Electrolytes — Strong, Weak, and Non Electrolytes. Retrieved from https://sciencenotes.org/electrolytes-strong-weak-and-non-electrolytes/