but Higuchi, Shoji, Taguchi, and Hatayama (2005) study,
but other employees may disassociate themselves from the individual making it difficult for workplace relations. It can create an awkward situation for a workplace supervisor or manager to confront the individual regarding their hygiene practices. Kossen, Kiernan, and Lawrence (2013), explained that “smell can be used as a nonverbal signal and can be deliberately used to give a person an advantage” (p. 247). Higuchi, Shoji, Taguchi and, Hatayama (2005) examined the positive link to behavioural changes when wearing perfume. They found that after applying perfume, the individuals in the control group showed a decrease in kinetics (movement), creating an impression of dominance and increase of self-confidence (Higuchi et al., 2005). An individual’s scent contributes to the messages received nonverbally whether intended or not, choice of perfume and personal hygiene highly influencing their social position or workplace standing either positively or negatively.Wearing perfume can induce a positive visual impression affecting an individual’s behavioural mannerisms. In the Higuchi, Shoji, Taguchi, and Hatayama (2005) study, it was found that the control group of perfume wearers enjoyed the smell they wore, which encouraged a positive effect on their ‘visual impression’ (Kossen, Kiernan, & Lawrence, 2013). In a positive state of mind, an individual may appear more confident, encouraging other nonverbal communication cues such as appearing relaxed, smiling and eye contact (Kossen et al., 2013). Most societies go to great lengths to create and wear scents to which they believe to be beautiful (Kossen et al., 2013) and encourage femininity through adorning an appealing perfume. “Because perfume attracts attention, those who wear perfume are likely to be conscious of the affect perfume has on others” (Higuchi, Shoji, Taguchi, & Hatayama, 2005, p. 91). Smell encourages different responses in people—due to olfactory emotional memory recall— what smells pleasant to one individual may be the opposite to another. (Kossen et al., 2013). A positive reaction to a perfume wearer can assist with the projection of a positive image, rousing self-awareness and public self-consciousness.