CHAPTER the governing approaches of the current

CHAPTER 2 – Literature Review

The aim of the literature review is to find and evaluate the current approaches
in the area of the electronic-governing and related areas within the background
of services of local government not only in the Philippines but also on the
other countries, and also identified and aided the gaps of the previous
literature and research. The purpose of this chapter is to ease the researcher
and the reader to understand how the research is made and polished the research
ideas. The literature review also help on making the research question for this

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
Writers Experience
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
Writers Experience
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
Writers Experience
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

2.2 Developmental
The purpose of the developmental research is to evaluate the progress of the
literature and research of the existing electronic governing solution in contrast
of significance of each research. The research eases to use for the
developmental of a new solution with the use of the gaps within the research
and literatures.

2.3 (Empirical Research)
According to 1, 2, 5 and 6, they conducted a research on Local
Governments to identify critical issues of the society to facilitate the local
government in maintaining the positive momentum of the quality of the
government services. The aim of the studies was to learn from the governing approaches
of the current local governments. The researches explore current performance in
delivering a good quality of services on the Local Governments.

The preliminary
exploration of the current situation in approaches of the Governments 1. The
preparation of the evolution of local government into a newly dimension of
electronic services 5, it highlights the challenges to the researchers in finding
and developing solution to the current problems using Information Technology.
And what is the perspective of the policy maker towards the approaches of the E-government
2, the study helps the researcher to know what are the constraint from the government
law that must obey, and the ethics and policy of Information technology on developing
and researching.

The research
4 highlight the similarities and dissimilarities of each electronic local
governments, and how the modified PeGI (Pemeringkatan e-Government Indonesia – PeGI) ensures the quality of evaluating
each LGUs by considering more detailed judgement to describe the distinctness
of each of the local government.


Based on
transparency and accountability according to 3 are essential part in
democratic governments, nationally and locally. The transparency and
accountability issue are the main problem of the municipalities, the research
aims to answer the questionable stop that makes the government deficiency in
accountability and transparency. The researcher’s findings are that the
governments are more reliable, efficient, and effective in delivering services
to the constituents with the new approaches of electronic governing. 

The importance
of Big data in the Government with use of analytics for innovating governing approach.
According to 8, The data inside the government, and the data that protected
by the law, all of this have a potential pattern drawn for innovation of the

The use of E-government website
on how the constituent’s perception meets the electronic services 7. The
solution proposed efficiency, fast and effectiveness evaluation methodology
based on the ISO 9126 software quality standard. It helps
the hierarchy of the model by introducing some of the features the reflect the
software’s attributes. The study’s scope of methodology is to evaluate efficiency, fast and effectiveness of the application, some
of the ISO/IEC-9126 characteristic are not fit in their purposes. More specifically,
Reliability, Usability, Functionality and Efficiency. The results of the
study show that the methodology proposed by the researchers has meet the
evaluation’s quality with the use of the ISO 9126.






In this
chapter the researchers will defined the sources