Climate is defined as the general weather conditions usually found in a particular place. Climate change or global warming is the rise in average temperature due to emission or presence of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases causing a change in the climate pattern across the globe. The sun is the primary energy source, and sunlight is reflected back into space causing an imbalance in the earth’s climate. Greenhouse gases including water vapour, CO2, methane and nitrous oxide act to make the earth’s surface warmer because they absorb emitted heat energy. Human activity such as deforestation and emission of pollutants in large amount has also affected the climate in past years. Since the industrial revolution began (from about 1850 to present), human activities have increased the greenhouse gases significantly. According to records from Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, the CO2 average concentration has risen from 316 ppm in 1959 to 396 ppm in 2013. Effects of the climate change can be seen in different ways such as Polar bears are losing their habitats, sea level is rising, hurricanes are getting bigger and stronger, increased drought, poor air quality, floods, glaciers are melting fast, temperatures are going up etc. In recent years, scientists have carried out research and analysed data from land stations, ships and satellites on the effect of climate change in the environment. The planet is a complex ecosystem with different interactions, but we all live in it and everyone is affected by this change. For over a century now, the earth’s temperature has risen between 0.4 – 0.8°C and the primary sources being carbon dioxide, greenhouse gases and fossil fuels due to increased industrial. A number of studies have revealed moderately large positive correlations between perceptions of efficacy and ratings of concern around climate change (Heath & Gifford, 2006; Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Milfont, 2012). EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE WORLDClimate change is not a myth or hoax, from the heat waves, hurricanes, the floods, famine, wildfire and extinction of some plants. Climate change is not happening at the same rate all over the world, it varies depending on the rate of human activity and emission of greenhouse gases. Some examples of climate change that has taken place and is still ongoing;Image 1: This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements, provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. (Credit: Vostok ice core data/J.R. Petit et al.; NOAA Mauna Loa CO2 record)Surface temperature has risen about 2.0° F (1.1°C) since late 19th century (NOAA).Oceans have absorbed the increased heat showing warming of 0.302°F since 1969 (Leviticus et al., 2009).Data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost about 150 – 250 km3 of ice per year between 2002 – 2006 and Antarctica lost about 152 km3 of ice between 2002 and 2005. Image 2: Flowing meltwater from the Greenland ice sheetThere is Glacial retreat around the world e.g Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Africa and Alaska (World Glacier Monitoring Service).Image 3: The disappearing snowcap of Mount Kilimanjaro, from space.Increase in acidity of surface ocean waters by 30% (NOAA).Decrease in snow cover in Northern Hemisphere over 5 decades and early melting of snow revealed by satellite observations (Derksen 2008-2012). Intense rainfall in the US and high temperatures (Kunkel 2013).The arctic which is the coldest place in the world has no sign of returning to the frozen region of past decades according to NOAA Arctic Report Card.The year 2017 was recorded as top 3 hottest years according to data analysis done by NASA and NOAA.SOLUTIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGEClimate change is a very complex issue because it involves different dimensions such as science, politics, ethical questions, society and economics. More emissions of greenhouse gases rise continuously as scientists are trying to create awareness for the world to be conscious. Different ways climate change can be resolved is through;Mitigation and adaptation – this has to do with reducing emissions and stabilizing heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and adapting to the climate change already taking place. Sources of greenhouse gases are cut down for example burning of fossil fuels for electricity or transport. Mitigation tries to avoid human activity that affects the climate and stabilize greenhouse gas levels giving ecosystems time to adapt naturally to climate change and ensuring food availability. Adaptation reduces vulnerability to harmful effects of climate change e.g sea level encroachment. Government resources – international bodies like NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) provide scientific data needed to understand climate change, evaluate ways to combat them and make the information known to global community i.e public, policy and decision makers, and scientific agencies. Energy innovations – research is ongoing for new ideas and innovations to use better energy alternatives in order to reduce climate change. Innovations such as jet biofuels, Nissan’s self-driving electric car, green climate change-fighting machines, renewable energy, greener spacecraft fuel etc. Solutions to climate change include conservation, biofuels, nuclear power, wind power, solar and clean coal. Combination of all these will be important to tackle the problem of CO2 in the atmosphere. Afforestation should be encouraged because 1 tree consumes 1 ton of CO2 during its lifetime. Trees also act as natural air filters and control erosion. Reducing, reusing and recycling can also be encouraged, being efficient with energy and creating awareness will go a long way. The choices we make will determine the extent of climate change.