Conflict is a thing that occurs due to
differences of opinion, differences of interests, and other factors. Conflict
may escalate and lead to war. War is a common thing on the African continent.
As a result of the war, the continent is very vulnerable to experience the
instability of the region and eventually cause a prolonged impact such as the
emergence of a prolonged crisis in terms of economic, social, and political.
Conflicts have occurred in Africa such as religious conflicts, civil wars,
territorial seizures, ethnic conflicts, opposition-government conflicts, and
other domestic wars.
One of the
countries in the African continent that is in conflict is the CAR. Instability
has been coloring the CAR since 1960. CAR is one of the so-called landlock
states. The country is bordered by Sudan in the east, Democratic Republic of
Congo and Congo in the south, Chad in the north, and Cameroon in the west. The
majority areas are Sudano-Guinean Savanna including Sahelo Sudanese Zone in the
north and Equatorial Forest Zone in the south (Djafar, 2012: 136).
independence from France in 1960, CAR has never been out of the conflict.
Almost at every turn of the country’s leaders begins with a coup d’etat. One of them is during the administration of
President François Bozizé. He has been in power since March 15, 2003, and until
March 24, 2013. Since Bozizé led the CAR, there has been resistance from some
of the rebel forces. The rebellion continues because of the economic and
political weaknesses in the CAR government. Even Bozizé has little power
outside of Bangui, the capital city of CAR. Extreme poverty, government
institutions, and economic development that both have no power at all make the
CAR population less supportive of the government (www.usip.org).
CAR’s northern anti-Bozizé populace considers Bozizé failing to uphold
democratic commitments, delay economic reforms, and delay the implementation of
promised politics. It was then that made the rebel group take active resistance
against the government.
One of them
comes from an opposition coalition known as Séléka holding a revolt aimed at
overthrowing François Bozizé’s regime that took place in 2013. In addition,
Séléka also fought against government troops. The Séléka uprising left Séléka
in power for 10 months (www.detik.com). One
of the reasons Séléka overthrew Bozizé because Séléka considers Bozizé to deny
a peace treaty already agreed upon in the past.
succeeds in deposing Bozizé, Michel Djotodia unilaterally declares himself
President of the CAR and doubles as Minister of Defense. Djotodia ruled since
March 24, 2013, until January 10, 2014. After Djotodia became president, the rebellion
of Séléka was later dissolved by Djotodia. After 6 months after the fall of François
Bozizé, the CAR condition worsened, as it later found out that Rebellion of Séléka
is a Muslim group that has committed gross human rights violations in this
predominantly Christian country. This is where the conflict develops and
extends from what was originally only a government-opposition conflict, then
widened and transitioned into a Christian-Muslim conflict. On that basis, eventually,
Christian groups formed a militia of resistance who called themselves as Anti-Balaka
(Hermawati, 2016: 212).
Anti-Balaka and Séléka,
eventually engage in combat. Anti-Balaka’s anger is not only exposed to members
of Séléka, civilians who are Muslims are also attacked. Séléka then strikes
back on what the Anti-Balaka is doing until the bloodbath in Bangui is
inevitable. The chaos and violence arising from the attacks of Séléka and
Anti-Balaka during the battle, ultimately made Michel Djotodia declared
withdrawal on January 10, 2014, because Djotodia was unable to resolve the
violence for the violence that occurred (www.voaindonesia.com).
to the conflict continues to grow in the CAR. This is certainly inviting
international attention, such as the United Nations (UN), especially the UN Security
Council (UNSC). The UNSC paid special attention to the conflicts that occurred
in the CAR. Since 1997, the UN has been discussing topics devoted to the CAR
conflict in each of its meetings. One of the UNSC’s role is the creation of a
peacekeeping force called MINUSCA. The UN is an international organization that
has an important role in conflict resolution through the UNSC. This can be
demonstrated through the main purpose of the UN establishment to maintain
international peace and security after World War II. The UNSC carries out its
duties by taking measures deemed effective in preventing and avoiding threats
that lead to acts of aggression or acts that may lead to disruption of the
stability of a country. The steps taken are certainly based on the principles
of international law and the principle of justice (www.un.org).
Based on the
statement above, the conflict in the CAR is a conflict that motivated by the
dissatisfaction of opposition groups against the government. As a result of
this, the UNSC must carry out its duties and functions in dealing with
instability in the CAR. Therefore, the UNSC established a special peacekeeping
force to maintain security in the CAR with the aim that the conflict in CAR
does not get worse. In this paper, there are several issues to be discussed. Firstly, the author focuses on the
failure of UNSC’s role through MINUSCA as a peacekeeping force in a conflict in
the CAR within the period 2013 to 2015. Secondly,
the impact of conflict on CAR on the social life of the CAR community. In this
case, the authors found a correlation between conflict in the CAR and its
influence on the social life of the CAR community.