Criti??l children of the study were investigated by

Criti??l review of Wakefield’s R?s??r?h
Student’s Name: Shmlan Alotaibi

Introduction/ background:
Wakefield et al., (2017), made a study to identify children with slow development disorder and chronic enterocolitis. The research was looking to fine the nature of Ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children (Wakefield et al, 2017). However, the study showed that MMR vaccine was leading to autism digestive problems in children and this led people to stop getting the vaccine, as a result many children have been dying since 1998. The study was related with the investigation of different conditions in children as explained below. 
Ileal-lymphold-nodular hyperplasia, sporadic condition that is connected with the colon, Pervasive developmental disorder, Chronic enterocolitis, and finally Regressive developmental disorder were all things that were found in the study (Wakefield et al, 2017). All of the children of the study were investigated by different ways including a Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit .Another way was by an ileocolonoscopy which is an endoscopic investigation of the colon and the ileum quotations (Fultz and Marino, 2016). Though the main way was an MMR or Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine is the immunization vaccine that is given to children for the prevention against vaccines, rubella, mumps, and measles. As postulated by Fiebelkorn, Coleman, Belongia, Freeman, York, Bi and Hickman (2015), it is necessary for children to be given the particular vaccine for two times.

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Disadvantages:
Andrew Wakefield’s report have many errors. He used scanty data (12 children), 11 of them were boys. As he published all the children were pointed to have some gastroenterology symptoms. GMC’s feedback that the children were selected consecutively (Godlee et al., 2011). As a result, there are no control group in the trial. Wakefield simply keep an eye on children with autism, thus there are no simile between a child do not have autism and a child have an autism. The research is quite particular. Mainly, to test a theory properly, the experiment should have been in large group, also it should have been in equal gender and age. Although, his report has been approved, a lot of rules were broken. Wakefield’s conclude was for “experimental gastroenterology” and he don’t have permission to that the children, but he did more than test for the children and unnecessary experiment for their health. For example, lleocolonoscopy and biopsy sampling, lumbar puncture, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) were used on children without approval (Boseley, 2010). What is more, he did not take the parent and the GMC into account. For example, he tried to give the children new vaccine without being told. Following on, Wakefield do not have any ideas if the autism was inherited disease, as it in most of families. Furthermore, he did an enormous mistake that his theories based on parent remembrance, despite the parents play an important role in diagnoses, they might give a faulty information about the abnormal attitude of children as they weren’t communicated. Accordingly, they could have autism before the MMR jab but they did not notice it. Lastly, this research impact children’s medical health, spread fear in parents, also in attract the media, which is led Wakefield to clarify the facts.

Advantages:
The percentage of children who get the MMR jab has decreased – the headmost was in 2007. According the Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) in 2003-2004 the digit shows significant improvement of people who vaccinated and reach 79 percent (NHS, 2013). In England, it was recorded that 97.7 percent of children, who were completing their first year, was injected by 2012, also it didn’t change the year after. HSCIC displayed that the children, who were 2 years old, they vaccinated and reach 92.2 percent in 2012. In contrast by 2011 the children who vaccinated slightly went down to 91.2 percent. Beside that it was the highest record ever since the Wakefield published his report in 1988. Even though, the people who accepted to take the vaccine has been boomed, the World Health Organization (WHO) aimed the number of vaccinated children were fully declined target of 95 percent. As a result, the children who were unvaccinated will increase, the measles diseases will increase as well. In England and Wales, the cases of measles went up from 56 to 971 between 1998 to 2007. Likewise, in England the concealment of MMR jab was bring down in 24 months in comparison with other vaccines (Mclyntye and Leask, 2008).

Public Impact:
The parents were deceived by the research in the Wakefield study, meaning that the study had a hidden intention of preventing the survival of children which lead to massive rage in the public. Moreover, it is clear that the doctor was not respecting the fact that MMR vaccine was recommended for the entire children population, therefore, not helping parents to prevent children from being attacked by serious diseases and ended up to many cases of children dying due to the fact they have not taken vaccines (Wakefield, et al., 2017). parents feared to give their children vaccines which resulted in many cases of children dying. In addition, the results of the MRI scan were used to mislead the parents by giving out the wrong results of the test. Besides, the paediatric gastroenterology department failed to play its role and that is why many children died after developing the chronic enterocolitis. Nevertheless, some children continued suffering from pervasive developmental disorder and others from regressive developmental disorder, as well as chronic enteritis, which threatened their lives. Therefore, the Wakefield research was deceptive to the parents although it took many years to prove it wrong and was late to fix what the people thought and some people still think it is true that MMR vaccines cause autism. 

Conclusion: 
To conclude this essay, the Wakefield’s incidence had many factors to it some of which are positive and some are negative. The media and scientific field were changed heavily in how it was viewed by the public. It also affected the way research was done in order not mislead the public or cause a similar incidence as the one with Wakefield, as it resulted in him being removed from the British medical register. This all ended up with people still asking the question of whether the MMR vaccines are causing children to become autistic or if it does not relate to it in any way.

References:
Day, N. J., Fultz, P., & Marino, D. (2016). Recurrent Small-Bowel Obstruction Caused by a Meckel’s Diverticulum Diagnosed on Video Capsule Endoscopy. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 14(6), A21-A22.
Fiebelkorn, A. P., Coleman, L. A., Belongia, E. A., Freeman, S. K., York, D., Bi, D., … & Hickman, C. J. (2015). Measles virus neutralizing antibody response, cell-mediated immunity, and immunoglobulin G antibody avidity before and after receipt of a third dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in young adults. The Journal of infectious diseases, 213(7), 1115-1123.
Meyer, R., Fleming, C., Dominguez-Ortega, G., Lindley, K., Michaelis, L., Thapar, N., … & Shah, N. (2013). Manifestations of food protein induced gastrointestinal allergies presenting to a single tertiary paediatric gastroenterology unit. World Allergy Organization Journal, 6(1), 13.

Wakefield, A. (2017). Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children–Retraction notice. Article originally published in The Lancet, Volume 375, Issue 9713, 6–12 February 2010. online. Science Direct, 445.

Chen RT & DeStefano, F 1998, ‘Vaccine adverse effects: causal or coincidence?’ The Lancet, vol. 351, pp.611 – 612.

Godlee,  F.,  Smith,  J.   and Marcovitch, H.   (2011). Wakefield’s article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent. BMJ, v.342 (1), pp.729-730.

Boseley, S. (2016). Andrew Wakefield found ‘irresponsible’ by GMC over MMR vaccine scare. online the Guardian. Available at:       https://www.theguardian.com/society/2010/jan/28/andrew-wakefield-mmr-vaccine  Accessed 23 Nov. 2016