Divinity is a strong theme of analysis in

Divinity and
divine intervention become a central and most important part of ancient epic
poetry as depicted in The Odyssey. Goddess Athena plays an essential role in
Odysseus’s’ journey back to Ithaka. Also in Telemakhos’s life, just before his
father returns, the goddess plays a vital role. The ‘grey’eyed’ goddess helps
Penelope, just after she inspires Penelope not
to stop holding off the suitors. She sometimes puts Penelope to sleep at
times of difficult situations. Athena, the Goddess demonstrates and shows that
she is an important figure within the Odysseus and his son Telemakhos as well
as guiding the wife Penelope, suggesting that divine and divinity is a strong
theme of analysis in this book (The
Odyssey). However, this is not the case with other two books, which
tends to show the monotheistic view of religion, where divinity much focused on
people showing interest in the gods.
Therefore, in this paper, I will analyze how divinity and divine intervention as
explicated and illustrated in The Odyssey are
different from the perception of religion in Inferno and Herodotus’s Histories
Book 1.

In Odyssey, the
goddess Athena has a good relationship with Odysseus’s family, and with her
divine powers, she seems to be guiding all the activities of this character and the family at larger – the
wife and the son (Nortwick, 10). She shows an extensive and exaggerated
relationship with Odysseus that at the beginning of this poem, she pleads with
her father Zeus, to give her the opportunity of helping Odysseus so that he
goes home to his family. She says “But my own heart is broken for Odysseus” (The Odyssey). Later on, she is imploring the father for more
help regarding Odysseus still. Also, while Odysseus is in Kalypso Island,
Athena informs her father that “Odysseus cannot stir, cannot fare homeward, for
no ship is left him, no crewmen or companions.” Therefore, Athena takes the
responsibility to aid this man as he sails away from the islands. She checks
“the course of the winds, commanding them” to be quiet and go to sleep –
something interesting. She desires that
Odysseus returns home safely to reunite
with the family after that long time (Hall, 12).

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When Odysseus also
arrives in the city that Nausakaa has been guiding him to, Athena “poured a sea
fog around him” and changes herself into a small to guide all the way and show
him the way to the palace. Athena guides Odysseus to the palace and warns him
about things that he must avoid to be
safe in the neighborhood that he goes. To show much care, she also slips in
with advice Odysseus may use in his future efforts of getting home. She says
that “cheerful man does best in every enterprise – even when a stranger.” Here, the goddess reminds the man that even
when he is in this neighborhood, he should never forget to work hard and
continue with business (The
Odyssey).

In book VIII of
the same collection, the relationship of Athena and Odysseus is depicted when this man is speaking with
Demodokos concerning the battle of Odysseus and Troy. Here, it is Athena who is associated with this victory. In fact, the
writer says “how Odysseus came like Ares to the door of Deiphobos… conquering
once more by Athena’s power” – meaning that the victory at Troy is much
attributed to the role of Athena when it comes to facilitating Odysseus in this
victory (The Odyssey).
At the same time, Athena had been guiding and protecting Odysseus’s family,
Tekemakho, and Penelope. She helps
Telemakho to remain strong, brave and hopeful for his father will return home.
She gave him the courage and direction that he lacked without his father for
more than 20 years. Also for Penelope, Odysseus’s wife, she was receiving help
from the grey-eyed goddess in the ways she can protect herself from the so
called the ‘advances of the suitors’ (The Odyssey).