Extra-Credit store food and keep it from

Extra-Credit book reports (all 11)

a work of History by Mark Kurlansky

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the Author: Mark is an American write and journalist. He specializes in works
that are nonfiction and or historical novels. He is currently alive and well
being born in December of 1948 he is a solid 69 years of age. His profession as
an author began with his first book titled “Continent of islands” in 1992 since
then he has been the author of ten plus books, all being historical non-fiction
or non-fictional novels. He does have a bachelor’s degree from the Butler
University. He then worked as a correspondent in Europe mostly in the western
region for various associations.

Argument: This book talks about the very beginning in written history of salt,
some parts even before that. He talks about the acquirement and reaping of the
mineral. Following up with the expansion and commercialization of them. Sometime
later he brings up the historical fact about how it considered sacred to some
religious masses he follows it up until early modern history.

Events: The whole history of salt has been quite obvious throughout history.
Most of the empires have used it to store food and keep it from spoiling,
wasting that valuable resource. They also helped change the cuisine of
different cultures like the Europeans because the Europeans had a super bland
pallet compared to other cultures like the Indian society which had a massive
expanse of taste in their culture. This gave way to trade new trade routes for
it from the Silk Road in china to Emporia in India. Even maritime trade had a
big change in popularity for its more economic payout

This book really expressed the sense of importance for traded goods in the
eastern European and southern Asian societies. Id rate this book at a 7 / 10
for the great detail of the history behind salt


An Investigation into The Origins of Modern Civilization by David Keys

the Author: David Keys is an archeologist for the London Daily Paper and over
his lifetime he has accumulated twenty plus documentaries and television
programs in both the United States of America and the British networks. His
profession has lead him through over more than 60 countries in 6 continents
with Antarctica being the last one left for him to visit. His findings have
changed how we talk about our new fossil and artifact findings leading us to
question more and get better answers with increasing accuracy. The impact is well
known among the community and his 40 plus years of experience make him an
expert in his field. David was born in 1979 and is very much well and alive

Argument: Catastrophe (the book) is talking about the explosion of the great
volcanoes that shaped and transformed culture of the destroyed cities.
Terraformation of the planet from the volcanoes shaped the beginning of the
renaissance period in Europe. They began expanding outwards towards Americas.
The Spanish, French, and English established a more technologically advanced

Events and Time Periods: The beginning of the renaissance was “marked” by the
eruption of the volcano talked about in the story. The renaissance brought
about lots of new inventions and philosophical ideas that changed future
history. Europeans countries began to colonize and reach out for the Americas,
so they could make new trade post. The new move to go to the Americas brought
new crops, new cultures, a slave trade, and places to colonize.

David’s book was about the effects of environment on human civilization his
book had a big amount of extensive information. I’d rate this at 8/10 thanks to
the explanation of European history which is my favorite out of all the

Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli

the Author: The author Niccolo di Bernardo Dei Machiavelli was an Italian
diplomat, history, politician, philosopher, writer and humanist. As an author
he wrote from 1498-1512 and died in the June 1527. In lots of articles and
research Niccolo is hailed as the father of political science and an excellent
writer of it. Throughout his works the term of “Machiavellianism” came to be
which means “unscrupulous politicians” which is now a coined term and also has
a psychological study based on the word.

Argument:  Machiavelli’s book talked
about the importance of a strong law system to provide the army with a sound
and strong foundation. “The presence of sound military forces indicates the
presence of sound laws in a society”. The book dedicates its pages to explain
how a great strategy to a military and government management system should be.
He also goes on about gaining new territory, expanding an already big empire,
and fortifying cities to protect the people inside and maintain a sound
empire/kingdom. His ideas of international diplomacy, domestic politics and
tactical mastery of the strategy to a great government adorn the book of the

events: The events in the story are in Florence, Italy in the late 15th
century and early 16th century. The events happening in this time
was the decline of the roman empire, the reformation and counter reformation of
the catholic church. The Chinese society has already fallen to the Mongols but
would eventually fight back. The rounds made to try to get the Americas
colonized in 1492 and establish a trading post have already happened. The
Spanish have begun conquering the south American societies.

I would rate this book at a 6/10 due to the lack of any information other than
his ideas. I do appreciate the government ideas that he explains throughout the

Givers: How the Indians in America Transformed the World by Jack Weatherford

the Author: Jack is a cultural anthropologist and a professor at the Malcoster
College in Malcoster, Minnesota. He has achieved a Master’s degree in 1973 from
the University of San Diego. Later on, he won a very prestigious award The
Magnolia’s highest honor which is the highest honor for a foreigner which is
given by the order of the Polar Star. He has written a multitude of books
throughout his life and received many awards. He is still currently alive and
with a good career behind him his articles continue to be published.

Argument: The books main argument is about how the gifts of America are
forgotten. The first things that come up are the silver mining history and how
we wouldn’t have as much ore as we do today if not for their perseverance of
it. He then continues to show that the new diet of people brought by the
Americas changed cuisine all over the world and brought about new era of change
in societies. His next points consist of the acquirement of knowledge for the
human body and the practice of more advanced medicine. Jack finishes the book
by blathering about new roads and how the road system technology improved
brought better trade.

Events: The events that took place during the main points of the book are the
conquering and huge massacres of the native people in central and south
America. The Spanish and Portuguese conquered from Mexico to south America. The
British tried colonizing the eastern border or North America, but the diseases
of the Europeans killed most of the natives almost 80%.

This book was a nice read and really opened up the effects of early
transatlantic colonization of the Americas. People died from “invisible
monsters” and didn’t know how to save themselves. I’d give this a 9/10 because
I really like European history and learning about indigenous groups.


Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe

the Author: Achebe is a Nigerian novelists and poet mostly known for his
literature work on “Things fall apart” which is a really renown read for his
genre. In his awards the highest honor given to him was the Man Booker
International award. He wrote the majority if not all his novels in English
saying it was a colonizer’s language. He has been published more than a dozen
times I both America and Nigeria. During his research on past cultures and
traditions his persistent curiosity led him into the fascination of writing
stories on the past. The stories became most of his works with some articles
also being published.

Argument: The main focus of the book was about the main character Okonkwo’s and
how the Igbo traditions and customs fell. The story is set in a village in
Nigeria where Okonkwo wants to gain respect and authority. He does have a
lowlife of a father that had a substance abuse problem. Throughout the story he
progressively becomes more agitated and aggressive. He then gets gifted a
child(Ikemetuna) as a peace offering and kills him in a fit of rage this leads
him into depression. He is then put on trial by the nine leaders of the clan
and subject to punishment

Events: The time period was the early 19th century during the
British period of Nigeria. The early slave some in before at the 1870. Then
Britain showed up in 1885 to occupy the area. They took up the Royal Niger
Company. The company had a considerable amount of autonomy for a past and
historical government

This book taught me about the many troubles and problems that a village would
face with each other and how they settled dispute with the little that they
had. Id rate this book at a 4/10 since the historical context was kind of
lacking but provided a solid visualization of village life and management.

Life and The Narrative of a Slave by Frederick Douglas

the Author: he was born in the month of February 1818 and died in 1895. His
professions and hobbies were being an Abolitionist, suffragist, author, editor
and diplomat. He often wrote himself autobiographies updating them as he went
and was published several times over. Frederick was also a leader in a
multitude of abolitionist movement. His full name of birth is Frederick August
Washington Baily Douglas. His life began as slave then moved north after
escaping where he learned and became educated. He was a leader in both ethnical
and gender equality

Argument: the story is about a slave that escapes from the south and was
educated by fellow slave. The man is 20 years of age he moved to north of New
York where he reunites with his girlfriend and marries Anna Murray. After, the
civil rights movements began to happen anti-slavery, abolitionists, and
equality rights began being known and fought for. The man became a speaker for
those movements. Movements in the 1800’s didn’t do much but after the passing
the mans writings aided the future prospects and movements

Context: During the time this was going on was also the time that the steam
machine production was occurring the foundation for the industrial revolution.
Some electrical and technological advances began taking placed and Americas
financial wealth grew heavily. Steel began being mass produced and oil became a
commercial thing. Abolition movements have eradicated most slavery but civil
rights movements had also started but didn’t take a massive swing in popularity
until the 1950’s where they completely gave full rights for all ethnical

My thoughts on the book are that it’s more inspirational than the others on the
“list” Id rate this at a 9/10 for conveying a nice coherent and understandable

Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas

the Author:  Born in July 1802 he is a
well accomplished author and playwright. His most well-known piece was the
Three Musketeers. Other novels are “20 years after”,” The Vicomte de Bragelone”.
His family was aristocratic and highly ranked in the community. He did marry
but, like most other high ranked French aristocratic man he had undoubtable
affairs. The man was still considered a noble and kind, though he did have a
pair of slaves from Africa. It is known that he had 4 children with his wife and
3 with other women whom he had affairs with. It is stated in several
biographies written about him that he has a crazy skill to arduously write lots
of literature.

Argument: The story takes place in France and Italy. Sometimes the story would
shift to the Mediterranean but no place other wise than that. From 1815- 1839-
during the bourbon era. Right after the hundred-day period is the beginning of
the story. The wedding day of Mercedes is accused of treason. While in prison
his cellmate quickly found out who was the one who incorrectly accused him and
betrayed him. Then he goes on to try to get rich and use that to conspire and
fight against the traitor.

Context and Events: The story is set in the Bourbon era of Europe during which
Napoleon was the rule. Slavery and the African slave trade was still a big
thing which gave the Europeans lots of man power.  Mean while in the United States if America
Abolition movements had gotten a grip and began taking an effect in society.   

the story did a lot of referencing to abolition and civil rights movements that
occurred during the late 1800’s and how it affected the African American people
of the U.S. I would rate the book at an 8/10 due to the point of view provided
by the author for the reader to experience the suffrages of the people


and People by William Henry McNeil

the Author: William is a Canadian American historian and writer. He has worked
in the University of Chicago as a teacher since 1947. He was born om Halloween
day, October 31st in the year 1917. His careers and life would end
almost a hundred years in July 8th 2016, he did not die of any extra
cause but of old age, being a solid 98. His place of nationality and birth is
Vancouver, Canada where he would eventually leave to work somewhere else. His
education would take him to a university where he would be drafted to serve in
the second world war(WWII), He won a myriad of awards including the National
Humanity. His later life would consist of being a teacher and author getting
published several times over

Argument: The book was divided into six chapters. Each chapter discusses about
different time periods with different viral infections and diseases. Each one
also contains the impact of those virality’s on other societies and cultures
determining its deadly effectiveness. the book brings to light S.T.D.’s,
plagues, and bacterial infections. Some include the smallpox outbreak in
central indigenous America or the Bubonic Plague in Central Asia which gave a shaking
to the economy and social workings of its system.

Events: This literation is going through a lot of time periods ranging from the
early nomadic tribe to the late renaissance era of Europe. Trade and travel
were and still are the main spreaders of diseases throughout the world. The act
of the Europeans conquering other lands brought diseases for which they already
had immunity to, to the indigenous people which were ravaged by it and weakened
to the point where they died off, leaving the white men to easily over throw
their kingdom.

The book gave good insight into how the multitude of diseases that appeared
affected civilizations. Id rate this book at an 8/10 due to the importance and
knowledge of diseases



Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico by Miguel Leon

the Author: Miguel Leon was born in the year 1926 on February in Mexico City.
His many professions include philosopher, anthropologist and historian. He is
from Mexico and due to his pride of his country and curiosity for history lead
him to the pursuit of knowledge about the past of Central America and South
America. Due the biliteracy of Miguel and living in rural regions of Mexico his
life was a mix of different cultures. Some of the greatest things he has are
the different restoration and preservation of native history in the Americas especially
the Nahuatl tribe. His interest in history was the drive for writing and
publishing over 30 books and articles over his time in the field

Argument: The writings and translations of the book of the Nahuatl language findings
are the basis of the book. The struggles of the native people and what they
faced due to the Europeans, which wanted more land, more money, and more power.
It accounts for the many diseases that afflicted them and ravaged them over the
years. The book explains the hardships and how the leaders of the clan would
deal with them, some people would “magically” die, which was actually the
diseases, leaving them to think the white men were holy and better than them.

Context: The spread of European influence and culture marked the conquering of
American indigenous tribes. The voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the
discovery of the Americas brought disease and the want for maritime trade of
American resources.

This study offered a lot understanding on the native people life, the history
behind them was intriguing and sad. Id rate this at a 7/10 being one of many
studies on the indigenous people

Crow by James Welch

the Author: The author James welch was bornin November 1940 in the month of
August. His bringing up of the native cultures Blackfeet and A’aninin. The
career of James began with being a Native America poet and novelist. Several of
his books have gotten awards and even been adapted into films over the past
couple decades. Unfortunately, he has already died, his death was abrupt and
caused by lung cancer dying at an age of 62 considerably less than the average
for his time in Missoula Montana during the month of August 2003. He left a
spouse named Lois Monk. While his worked in his early life consisted of being a
rancher and metal welder he would try to incorporate studies somewhere in
between the time possible. Leading him to his writings of literature which grew
his name into the minds of many

Argument: This book, being fictional American contemporary literature, argues
about a colony of Native Americans and a young man entering man-hood gets
attacked and is subjugated by the white men who are invading their territories
and lands. This depicts the way white men were just conquering and attacking at
random and how James thinks the rebellions and fights would have been argued or
transposed in reality. Native would randomly get attacked and since they were
dying and the white men weren’t they thought and depicted them as holy.

Context: This is his 4th book now involving the stories of native
and also the 4th in the “list”. The books all agree in similar
things telling similar tales, agreeing that they faced disease and hardships
from the Europeans. All of the same things continually happened but the
Americas did bring lots of commercial goods and establishing the Columbia trade

The book didn’t do complete justice to do the Americans but had a great
narrative. I’d rate this at a 6/10 for the great story telling devices used by
the author and creator James.

Art of War by Sun Tzu

the Author: The author Sun Tzu has long since passed but, during his time alive
he was a Chinese military army general. His occupations consisted of being
military strategist, author and philosopher. His writings in his book had an
increasingly visible and obvious impact on the Middle east. He was born in 544
B.C. to the Qi state of china to which he lived a considerably longer time than
the average man dying at 50 years of age in 496 B.C. His title means Master Sun
and was respected in the Chinese court and government as a minister and poet
for the emperor.

Argument: The book is the general military read on how to lead an army. It has
numerous amounts of strategical and tactical advice for the ancient empires
some of those ideas are still used in modern warfare. The notes given also
provided advice on how to manage the camps and sectors of an army. The use of
terrain and how assimilate the problems and dissent from them. It said that
resolving problems and determining how they affect the army was very important.
Feeding and keeping an army clean were a priority and still are, plus managing
available resources and obtaining them.

Context: The most prominent and well know parts of the eras history were: The
building of the Grand Canal, Greek City Revolts, the defeat of the Greek in
battle and the Age of philosophy beginning with Pericles and the downfall of
his Athenian government. The Peloponnesian wars were beginning to occur. No
empire could last due to heir problems but the Ptolemaic empire prevailed in

The book gave amazing point of views on how past governments operated and
managed the people, armies and resources. It thought about the many variables
to a single practice. Id rate this book at a 7/10 I liked it quite well but
would find it boring at times. The last and final of my book reports.