Figure to support a argument or problem if

Figure 1….

The interactions that depicted in Figure 1 examines the
process of ontological correctness and in-correctness. The main from our
findings from figure 1 shows us the blue line (ontological correctness ) was
significant due to participants rating the syllogisms highly as correct rather
than incorrect. The findings therefore support our hypothesis by the results
given that people support problems that are believable and at the same time
valid. This tells us that despite being given incorrect syllogisms too
,participants show to believe the correct problems more having practised logical

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Previous literature by (Backscheider,shatz ,& gelman,1993). which stated children hold high
beliefs through when it comes to reality and existance. He described how
children know how things like a wounded sheep can eventually recover whereas if
a window is broken it will stay broken and cannot fix on its own. However our
study supports this literature despite our study being focused towards adults
it was still effective when examining if they were likely to choose invalid
instead of valid but despite that the conclusion they chose what was
believable. And this tells us that they also know the facts of existance, non
existance and naturality.



A peer review by done by (Blackie,2007) criticised the
theories and studies of ontological mistakes of showing its lack of belief
towards ontology, its errors and its sarcasm. In other words this review
conflicts with the studies of Backscheider,shatz,& gelman,1993) of the
errors children and adults may face when it comes to reasoning and belief
bias.a study in which (Chen,2007) found adults to being biased and confused
when it comes to processes and objects. This supports our findings of how some
participants were confused at some problems presented to them and became


However what (Blackie,2007) is trying to argue is that this
is only the way people show their beliefs of natural and existing things and
how people believe things to be and are not confused. This conflicts theories,
and previous and current studies like ours as we believe if their was belief
bias it may have been due to the time limit,or not properly cognitively
processing the information or other factors that may have arisen during the



People will to a lesser extent are likely to support a
argument or problem if it is logically valid but at the end the argument is
incorrect and unbelievable. These findings mean that for cognitive psychology
this argument suggests that when you guide participants and general people
about ontology and its correctness and its in-correctness about living things
and objects it starts to mix in with their reasoning and becomes the reason of
them stopping believing an argument which may be invalid whilst reasoning .this
means when instructions given before tests are conducted in psychological
research not only do we not deceive participants in taking part but we also
help them by encouraging them to choose the right arguments and help them
prevent errors.


Another factor that interfered whilst participants were
reasoning was the believability argument. Participants were beforehand told
about how believability may arise in reasoning problems and despite this they
should not let it affect their decisions they chose to consider arguments that
were believable highly and chose most importantly the statements overall that
were logical and natural to existing world. This through a psychological
perspective helps us understand that despite given instructions participants
followed what they believed to be logical and did not bias believability.


From the findings presented to us , for future I would like
to move through this study by if I was about to do this study again I would
follow on changing the statements. This would be because the use of same or
similar statements and syllogisms makes it easier for people to understand
which ones are valid/invalid or correct/incorrect. Introducing updated
experiments will help determine if people are aware of ontological mistakes or
have errors based on confusion. I believe the weakness of this study was the
statements they were easy and basic, used more than once in previous studies
and the repeating of certain statements. For future I would like improvements
on the content of the experiment design, also with the instructions only to
give participants a brief summary of the test and not give too much information
that will encourage them to make decisions based more on the information rather
than their intelligence. This will be useful because it will give us findings
that may prove to be different to the one we have gathered. Our main findings
were that most people despite time limit and valid statements with a
unbelievable conclusion chose at the end to avoid making ontological errors and
went for what was correct and chose their natural instincts.

Openness to experience and the big 5 connected to the belief towards

Practical 2


The aim of this study was to understand if personality
traits the big five were related to notion of (CAM). In our study participants
were asked to answer varies of questions and their opinions regards to certain
personality traits and their beliefs and views about the use and practice of
complementary and alternative medicine. The design of this research was
multiple regression anova. And the results showed us one signficance of the
test (REIexp) which was (Beta=.337; p=.008).


Complementary and alternative
medicine for short (CAM) is described as a number of different medical and
healthcare care systems and practices that are put in place to cure diseases
and illnesses. Although the systems are not part of standard medicine it is yet
still considered effective and widely used across the world.

However while careful thinking
is more effective towards updated details, events and initiative thinking. This
documents what is normal and expected in circumstances and therefore considers
past research and accomplishments, in the same manner CAM implores this through
ancient and traditional remedies primarily used in the past and their
effectiveness through them.


Complementary and alternative medicine includes treatments
as an alternative resource to normal healthcare around the world (zollmon &
Vickers, 1999). Complementary and alternative medicine also for short known as
(CAM) is not only used nationally but around the globe in various countries.
Previous studies have shown the people who choose to use (CAM) instead of the
healthcare system are often people who are from highly educated professions
with poor health conditions than people who tend to avoid (CAM). (Astin,1998).
Research has shown their is a higher number of women who tend to use
alternative medicine than men this because it is found that mostly women find
alternative medicine the most effective and satisfying for treating their poor
health ( Adams, Easthope, & Sibbritt, 2003).

openness to experience (OtE) the big
five is related to and is an important part in (CAM) and its beliefs. This is
due to the complementary medicine many patients experience psychological
elements as the side effects. This can be from patients attitudes to (CAM) or
beliefs about its effectiveness or hold curiosity and mixed feelings about the
alternative treatment they are using.

From previous studies we feel confident to believe
(CAM) is connected to openness to experience and to instinctive reasoning
styles. From previous studies we have found that many of the studies and are
based on thinking styles and (CAM) using an individual test called (REI). In
other words we find that this test is inaccurate in finding peoples thinking
styles as it does not fully help people determine their thinking style but
makes them choose which they may be regardless if their answers are right or
just out of guess. Our hypothesis is to test if using a reasoning test may be
more helpful where we can examine thinking styles with action similar to the
(CGT)cognitive reflection rest where we can explore what people are thinking
and how they have processed information (Frederick,2005) Also taking
inspiration from a previous test conducted by (Bar-Hillel,1980). we believe
these updated studies reference what people are really thinking personally
,instead of giving answers based on other studies views. The independent
variable for our test was ex(genders), OtE(openness to experience),
CRTi(intuitive responses ),
REIexp(rei experiential), REIrat(REI rational), Education and the dependant
variable was CAM total.




the participants taking part were males and females who were all studying at
the university of Wolverhampton. Their was approximately 86 females who took
part in the study and the remaining were 22 males. The ages were 18-73 and from
different areas of education.


The independent variables for our multiple linear regression
anova durbin Watson test were ; Sex(genders), OtE(openness to experience),
CRTi(intuitive responses ),
REIexp(rei experiential), REIrat(REI rational), Education and the dependant
variable was cam_total.

and procedure

test was completed with each student given 2 booklets each for a family or
friends with consent sheets explaining about data protection, summary of the
questionnaire and the right to withdrawal and full anonymity with it. Each
person filled the booklet independently using a pen and all answers were their

The first test was the Attitudes people may hold
towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine which consisted of 30 questions.
The test asked what beliefs people may have had about CAM and
its effectiveness along with herbal products ,natural medicines in relation to
personality traits.