First of all i
want to discuss the subtle difference between Team and Group
Team Stands for Together
Everyone Achieves More – When two or more people in a group that
work together to achieve a common goal is called team.
Group – When two or more people who
interact with each other to accomplish a goal.
Difference between Team
Team can be
difficult to form.
work together to achieve
Team members work in same department.
Team members are interdependent.
Purpose to support
Group can be
Two or more people interact to achieve a goal.
Group members may or may not work in same department
Group members are independent.
Purpose to achieve organizational goal.
Groups and Team are Key contributors to organizational
effectiveness in such a way:
1) Effective Group
and team enhance performance of the organization. Organization take decision
as early as possible
2) It also increases responsiveness to customers.
3) Effective Groups and teams increases motivation and
satisfactionof the customer.
Different Types of
Teams and Groups that help managers and
organizations to achieve their goals.
Formal Group and Informal Group
1)Formal Groups : Formal
groups are groups that managers establish to achieve organizational goals.
Formal Group includes:
Cross-functional teams -It includes members of different departments.
Cross-cultural teams- It
includes members of different cultures.
Top-management teams-It helps in developing firm direction.
Research and development teams-It helps in developing new product
Task forces-(created to meet a given objective),Self-managed work teams
Virtual teams-Team members interact through various form of
information technology such as email, computer network , telephones, video
conferences but rarely or never meet face to face.
2) Informal Groups : Informal groups
are groups that employees form because they believe that the groups will help
them achieve their own goals or meet their needs. They include friendship groups (enjoys one another’s
company)and interest groups.
Group Dynamics: It will affect how group or team functions
when they are brought together.
Key elements of Group Dynamics are:
1)Group Size and roles-
Group size should be small (2to 9 members). Members in small group interact
better than in large groups.
2)Group Leadership- Group
leader need to assigned when group is formed.
include four stages Forming, Storming, Norming
,Performing and Adjourning.
4)Group Norms –Rules are
shared among members to control behavior
in groups, set working hours.
Cohesiveness should be strong in groupbut not so strong that Group members are
loyal first to the groupand then the organization.
Decision Making: When group makes faulty decision because Group
members become too focussed on reaching agreement .Groupthink doesnot have to
occur,but group leaders must be sure to seek altetnative opinion from group
members, and encourage dissent when members disagree so that all option can be
of Group Think
1) Illusion of invulnerability
3)Assumption of morality
4)Illusion of unanimity
How Group Decision
making can be improved
Devil’s Advocacy: one member of the group acts as the
devil’s advocate and critiques the way the group identified alternatives.
Dialectical inquiry: Two different groups are assigned
to the problem and each group evaluates the other group’s alternatives.
Promote diversity: By increasing the diversity in a
group, a wider set of alternatives may be considered.
Decision making can be
improved by using three techniques:
1) Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a group decision-making technique that is used for
generating ideas. In brainstorming, the leader of the session presents a
problem or question, clarifies the rules of the session . Ideas are written
down so that every member can see them. Brainstorming does not solve the
problem but helps generate creative ideas. As a result, quantity of ideas
counts and members do not criticize ideas. Then discussion occurs and
alternatives are ranked.
2) Nominal Group Technique- It provides a more structured way to generate
alternatives in writing.
This group decision-making technique is used to identify
problems or to evaluate alternatives. In this technique, members of the group
spend five to 10 minutes writing their ideas without discussion. Then, they
report their ideas individually. Ideas are written on a flip chart, and
individuals try to add to the ideas. In the next phase, group members vote or
rank the ideas privately. With private voting, strong members of the group can
not affect the results. After voting, the group discusses results and generates
more ideas. The idea generation, voting and discussion cycle can continue until
a satisfactory decision is reached.
3) Delphi technique
method helps the group reach consensus without the influence of strong members
of the group and the tendency to rush for a decision at the end of a meeting.
It is a structured variant of the traditional expert polls and is usually used
in forecasting. In this method, a questionnaire is mailed to a group of
experts; administrators aggregate the results and send a second questionnaire
with the results of the first round. Several rounds of questionnaires and
feedbacks help respondents reach consensus on the debated issue. The
administrators of the Delphi method make a decision based on the results of the
Managing Groups and Team For High Performance
Reduce Social Loafing- It is the tendency of individual to
put less efforts when work in group than work alone.
Helping Group to manage Conflict: various types of conflict occur
in group are;
1)Task related conflict
3)Organizational Conflict –It includes scarce resources,
incompatible evaluation for reward system, task interdependencies,status
Approaches To manage Conflict are:
Conflict occur when there is variation in their degrees of
cooperativeness and assertiveness-
It can be handled by following ways:
1) Avoiding : Withdrawing from conflicts
2) Competing: Satisfying one’s own need only don’t look at