“From different social classes, such as the Freeman

each according to his abilities to each according to his needs” is a slogan from
Karl Marx’s ‘Critique of the Gotha program’ that simplifies the
basis on which Karl Marx build his political argument. Karl Marx was a major
socialist figure that emerged in the 19th Century and his ideas were
the basis of various communist states throughout the past few decades.  Karl Marx ideologies find basis in George Hegel’s
historical analysis found in ‘The Phenomenology of the Spirit’ which Marx studied
during his years in the University of Bonn. Such thoughts included the
opposition to Christianity and the condemnation of the Prussian rulers, which
he wrote about in the liberal newspaper the ‘Rherinische Zeitung’, which later
was shut down by the Prussian government. Marx shortly after started to reject
Hegel’s abstract and idealistic philosophy and moved on to argue a
materialistic adaptation if Hegel’s ideas.


Unlike Hegel’s belief that the changes that occurred
throughout history were related to the restriction of freedom of the civils, Marx
believed that the “history of all hitherto existing society is the history of
class struggle”. With this statement, Marx opens the first part of ‘The Communist
Manifesto’, ‘Bourgeois and Proletarian’. He argued that during the history of civilizations
there was one major common factor, that is the conflict between different social
classes, such as the Freeman and the Slave, Patrician and the Plebeian, the
Lord and the Serf and The Guild Master and the Journeyman. The Manifesto claims
that society was back then finally simplified into two classes in direct
conflict. The Bourgeoisie, the capital-owning class and The Proletariat, the
working class. He accuses that the modern day drifted away from “antagonism”
and instead it “established new classes, new conditions and new forms of struggle”.
What Marx seems to not understand however is that social classes’ structure is more
complicated than the two social categorizes he identifies. At this stage , Marx
misidentifies the presence of small population that made up the upper middle-class.
He describes the middle-class as a simplified version of class antagonism and
that the middle class was taken over by the industrial businessman, “The Modern

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