Imagery the age of 16-17. Eleven participants

Imagery is a mnemonic device that makes easier to memorize and also recall word-pairs more than rehearsal. The dual-coding theory states that there are two coding systems: nonlinguistic and linguistic. They are different but highly connected with eachother.  The aim of this study was to replicate experiment conducted by Paivio in 1971. This experiment tested each patricipant individually and used a design of repeated measures. The dependent variable was the number of word-pairs recalled correctly and the independent variable was the mnemonic device used to memorize the word-pairs.  The participants were chosen randomly. There was fifteen high-school students at the age of 16-17. Eleven participants were females and four were males. Each of the participants were given the same sixteen word-pairs to memorize them. Eight of  the word-pairs were to be memorized by using rehearsal and the other eight word-pairs by using imagery. After being asked to memorize first eight of the word-pairs, the participants were asked to recall the coresponding word from the word-pair when given the first or the second word.   The results showed that the dual-coding theory works. More word-pairs that were memorized through imagery were recalled than the word-pairs using rehearsal method. Memorization using imagery is much easier because we imagine the two words from particular word-pair together in particular situation. These findings conform the dual-coding theory because nonlinguistic coding was more easily recalled than linguistic coding.                Table of Contents:    Abstract  Introduction pg. 1   Method pgs. 2-5   Design pg. 2  Patricipants pg. 3  Materials pg. 4  Procedure pg. 5  Results pgs. 6-7  Discussion pg. 8  References            pg. 9  Appendices pgs. 10-15   Appendix I   –   List of 16 Standard Word-Pairs            pg. 10  Appendix II  –   Standardized Instructions pg. 11  Appendix III  –  Blank Testing Sheet pg. 12  Appendix IV  –  Informed Consent Statement pg. 13  Appendix V    –  Raw data pg. 14  Appendix VI  –   Calculations & Formulas pg. 15 1    Introduction   Dual-coding theory is developed by Allan Paivio in the 1960s. This is a theory of cognition according to which humans process and represent verbal and non-verbal information in related and separate systems. The dual-code memory model proposes a verbal system for processing and storing linguistic information and a separate non-verbal system for spatial information and mental imagery1. Verbal information is largely associated with the left hemisphere and non verbal information is associated with the right hemisphere of the brain. The dual-coding theory show the adventage of combining texts with pictures. Allan Paivio conducted that human cognition is unique because it uses two different codes to store and represent  the information in memory. Verbal code is specialized for linguistic objects and imagery code is specialized for nonlinguistic events. The imagery code is more easily recalled because visual images ivolve multiple associations with other images and words. It is making it is coding much more elaborate than the verbal code. Allan Paivio also suggested that there are two special chunk-like stores of the memory. They are specialized logogens for the verbal code and imagens for the imagery. Mnemonic devices are techniques used for improving memory. For the technique of imagery, words are mentally visualized graphical associations and for rehearsal, words are repeated over and over again – verbal code.   The original experiment conducted by Paivio in 1971 showed that people memorize the word-pairs through imagery much easier than using rehearsal to recall the words. The participants were shown a sequence of images. Then they were asked to recall what they had seen in any order that they wanted. During recalling images in any order, participants recalled more pictures than words. When recalling images in the order that they had appeared, more participants recalled the words sequentially than the pictures. Even so, more pictures were recalled than images of words. These results supported Paivio’s theory that nonlinguistic and linguistic objects are stored and processed differently. The results also demonstrated that imagery codes are more easily recalled than the verbal ones. This experiment’s aim is to demonstrate that imagery is a mnemonic device that makes word-pairs much easier to memorize and recall than rehearsal.   I have chosen this study because I am interested in the brain of the human. The memory is very interesting topic to discuss. I wanted to find out more about our memory and how it actually works. Research conducted by Paivio is very interesting to explore. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the memorization of the word-pairs using the imagery is easier than using rehearsal.      1   – 2   Method  Design    This experiment used repeated measures design because the ability of participants to recall word-pairs using two mnemonic techniques was tested. Also, the repeated measures was used because it allowed researcher to compare the results of recalling word-pairs by the participants after memorizing by using one mnemonic technique to the other technique. The mnemonic techniques used in this study were imagery and rehearsal.   Researcher prepared a standard list of sixteen word-pairs to be memorized. Controls included the amount of given time to memorize each of word-pair, the random selection of the participants, the randomized order of word-pairs given and the standardized instructions read to each of the participants. Participants were tested individually to eliminate the possibility of sharing answers and minimize distraction from other participants. The technique used to memorize each word-pair randomly selected but always in the same order. The confounding variable among the participants was their general ability to memorize words. Each of participants had different ability of their memory. Repeated measures were used to compare one of each participants. Participants with a high memory ability recalled the word-pairs easier and with higher score than others. Also, noise was another variable that could be not controlled by the researcher. The noisy environment may have disabled them from fully focusing on the experiment and may have caused distraction to participants.   Informed consent was obtained from all of the participants prior to experimentation. Each participant was made aware that they could withdraw from the experiment in any time by simply notyfing the experimenter. The participants were assigned with a different number to be used as identification and for data analysis.   The independent variable was the two mnemonic techniques used and the dependent variable was the number of word-pairs correctly recalled by the participants.              3    Method  Participants     Fifteen participants at the age of sixteen to seventeen were chosen randomly. There were eleven females and four males. All participants go to the public high school in Bydgoszcz in Poland. They come from the same ethnic background and all are students in second class of high school. Nine of the participants came from geography classes at higher level and the other four participants cam from English classes also at higher level.   These participants represent an opportunity sample because the researcher was only able to use students classes that were available – due to schedule conflicts. Each student from the two classes was assigned a number on a sheet of paper. The researcher have chosen random students who wanted to take part in the experiment. The researcher was  chosing one by one from the list of names from the top to the bottom. Then the researcher asked if this person wants and agrees to take part in this experiment. The results of this experiment cannot be generalized to the worldwide population. The participants come from a specific area and population of teenagers in Poland. What is more, in the experiment have participated more females than males.                     4   Method  Materials    The materials used in this experiment include the sheets of paper, sixteen standard word-pairs to be tested (see Appendix I), pre-made blank testing sheets for recording data (see Appendix III), standardized instructions (see Appendix II) and informed consent statement for each of participant (see Appendix IV). The calculator, the timer and the pens were also needed.                                 5   Method  Procedures    Firstly, a list of sixteen word-pairs (see Appendix I) was scrambled and put into the same order for fifteen testing sheets (see Appendix III). Participants were taken to a separate location for experimentation. Then standardized instructions (see Appendix II) were read to each participant to understand the aim of the experiment. Next, each of them signed consent statement (see Appendix IV) that they agree for participating in this research. After the explanation, researcher read first eight word-pairs to be memorized through imagery. Then, the participant was asked to recall the word-pair when experimenter read first word of the pair. In the second part of the experiment, the participant was asked to memorize word-pairs using method of rehearsal. Then, the participant was asked to recall second word from the each of word-pairs. After testing was completed, each testing sheet was scored and the number of correctly recalled word-pairs was added, noting how many were completed using different techniques for memorization. Finally, the data was analyzed and calculated to see the general results of the experiment.