Introduction: developed than in India and even the
Introduction: Pakistan was founded on August 14, 1947 in India, when the two countries gained independence from the British colonial empire. Subcontinent division has been created along religious ethnic lines with Pakistan in neighboring regions, which have a mainly Muslim population. India, on the other hand, had a huge Indian population, but Muslims were also the second-largest Hindu minority. Areas of Pakistan include provinces, western India and eastern Bengal province in eastern India. The wings of eastern and western Pakistan were separated thousands of kilometers from the territory of India. India inherited most of its colonial infrastructure and Pakistan received some of its resources. However, the regions that make up Pakistan are less developed than in India and even the administrative infrastructure was limited. The main challenges faced by Pakistan at the time of independence were related to security issues, lack of infrastructure in the country and limited financial resources. The establishment of two separate States and the division of countries according to ethno-religious standards led to large migration in both countries, as well as ethnic cleansing, deprivation and looting. The division of the subcontinent was a controversial failure, and India and Pakistan questioned the distribution of goods and territories in both countries. Kashmir was the main cause of the conflict because India and Pakistan demanded the state. The conflict led to a limited war in 1948, leading Pakistan to occupy one-third of Kashmir and two-thirds of India.The United States remains one of the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with Pakistan. Although the report was dated October 20, 1947, it can be concluded that the relations were based solely on military and economic support. Marshal Field Ayub Khan, Pakistan’s first military chief, was a close engineer with the United States. Therefore, America was one of the two superpowers. At the conclusion of the defense agreements with Washington, he left his country behind the Soviet Union, the other superpower. A line that is different from most developing countries. Ayub Khan has explained his foreign policy on several occasions, especially in his autobiography, friends not masters. Its objectives were the security and development of Pakistan, and the preservation of its ideology as he saw it. To that end, he sought to improve or normalize relations with Pakistan’s impending neighbors: India, China and the Soviet Union. In maintaining and renewing the alliance with the United States, Ayub Khan emphasized his preference for friendship, not dependency, and negotiated a lot to get more revenue for Pakistan.Relations between Pakistan and the United States:The evolving relations & Ayub Era 1952-1969Relations between Pakistan and the United States have improved since President Eisenhower took office in 1952 at the White House. Pakistan has declared its status as an ally that can provide security support in the Middle East, and in turn called for military and economic support for the plague economy. Unsettled local politics have caused political and economic problems, while bureaucrats and military authorities have become stronger in the country. The Republican government was more receptive to Pakistan’s stance and its claims of anti-communism and available allies. Pakistan joined Turkey as a member of the Middle East Defense Organization (MIDO) in 1954. This enabled Pakistan to officially seek assistance as a regional ally of the United States. In January 1955, Pakistan joined the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEAC) to promote security on the Asian side of anti-communist formation. However, it was not clear how Pakistan’s role in those organizations could be significantly achieved in the event of genuine conflict. But for Pakistanis, joining these alliances allowed the country to build ties with the US administration and seek more aid.In September 1955, Pakistan became a member of the Baghdad Charter, later known as the Cento. Turkey, Iran and Iraq were the first members of the United States as guarantors of the security pact. The role of this organization was similar to that of the old Mido program as the North’s defense against Communist influence in the Middle East. Finally, the alliance neither Baghdad nor Situ was militarily important, unifying the Baghdad and Seto Charter, giving the country more demand for American and American resources. In turn, participation for the well-being of Pakistan: Ayub Khan “Unfriendly Friends” In his biography, America’s most ally in Asia. “Pakistan and US relation under Ayub khan era:After taking power in a coup, General Mohammad Ayyub Khan issued a 1958 declaration on Pakistan’s foreign policy, saying that we are the United States ally. This shows that at that time, Pakistan became more pro-Western. Ayub Khan said he believed Pakistan could only continue if the Kashmir problem was resolved, which would not have been possible without the help of the Western bloc. That is why Ayyub Khan relies on the Western bloc, especially the United States. At the time, Pakistan faced two major issues: the unresolved issue of Kashmir and the alleged security threat to the neighboring country of India. On the other hand, the goals of the United States were to help Pakistan and maintain its independence in an area threatened by communism. President Ayub Khan soon assumed the post of chief of staff and the fact that the president of the country has long-term regard for friendship between the two countries. In his Pakistan perspective, President Ayub Khan, published in foreign affairs in July 1960, writes: “The next 15 or 20 years will be the most important for Pakistan, or we will notice it now or not.” If we can not make a note, we have to launch ourselves under the tide of communism that feeds our anger constantly. While we are not looking for this destination, we must go ahead and do it quickly, and return to our friends and allies. Pakistan became closer to the United States during the second phase of its foreign policy when it relied on US support for political and economic assistance.Pakistan-US Bilateral Agreement 1959: The agreement between the two countries was the main treaty signed between the Ayyub regime and the US administration. Treaty On the basis of the following agreements, the two countries agreed to participate in London on 28 July 1958. The document was a short documentary composed of six articles to improve future cooperation. The US government has recognized the need to expand friendship as “vital to its national interest and world peace while maintaining the independence and integrity of Pakistan.” Under article 1, the United States Government, in the event of an attack against Pakistan, will take “appropriate measures, including the use of the armed forces as agreed by the United States Constitution.”On March 5, 1959, Pakistan and the United States signed a bilateral defense agreement for bilateral cooperation. Under the agreement, the United States has agreed to cooperate with Pakistan to address security threats and defense needs. Meanwhile, the US government has strengthened national interest in maintaining peace in Southeast Asia and, above all, in maintaining Pakistan’s independence and integrity. Pakistan reiterated its determination to resist aggression when the United States pledged to “take under the Constitution of the United States appropriate measures to promote peace and stability in the communist struggle in the Middle East.” East and Pakistan. “The United States also said any attack on Pakistan would be an attack on America,” he said. This alliance between the United States and Pakistan at the beginning of the Cold War promotes global peace rather than communist aggression and strengthens Pakistan’s defense against Indian’s aggression and potential threat.Treaty of Friendship and Commerce:The Treaty of Friendship and Trade between Pakistan and the United States was signed on November 12, 1959 (entered into force in 1961). In understanding the articles, the treaty was an important agreement between two countries. According to Sam Haidar, “the treaty was the result of the desire of the United States and Pakistan to strengthen relations and the treaty was generally based on the principles of national treatment and more favorable (Haidar, 1995): 517 The agreement allows citizens The Convention provides for the treatment of the most-favored-nation State. It contains other provisions on which citizens and businesses of both parties may engage in scientific, educational, religious and charitable activities within the territory of the two countries. They have been allowed to form non-political associations for this purpose and are, of course, subject to the laws of the country in which the association is established.Kennedy’s Initiatives for Kashmir:The Kennedy administration has expressed its belief in the peacemaking strategy between India and Pakistan. This strategy is called Pivotal Staticcraft. The Kennedy administration revised a peace strategy between India and Pakistan in 1963, a vital vehicle for maintaining peace in South Asia, bringing together their rivals on the Kashmir issue. The strategy was based on a simple “critical” personal principle. He assumed that India and Pakistan, neighbors in the war and the Cold War, the mutual need for US support would lead them to US support for flexibility in Kashmir. The President, Kennedy shortly after taking office expressed concern over the resolution of the main conflict in South Asia. America has been unable to provide military aid to India because of its alliance with Pakistan. A key strategy is that since the United StatesHe began providing India’s military aid to China in 1962, while continuing to arm Pakistan as his enemy, and he seemed well positioned to play a decisive role among them.Both sides were keen to secure and maintain US support, and none of them could face the loss of such support with peace of mind. As a result, the administration believes that the desire of India and Pakistan for US support, along with the urgent need for this support, will lead to a “friendly challenge” in which every attempt to get Americans to commit Kashmir. However, it did not work. The feasibility of the strategy depends on two things. First, neither side was convinced that pivotal support was guaranteed. Secondly, the two sides did not have other interesting sources of support. None of these conditions were met during the two-way Kashmir negotiations initiated under the auspices of the United States at the end of 1962. The United States held a full campaign not only for Nehru but also for leaders and opinion leaders. To convince them that US aid can only be guaranteed in India if the conflict in Kashmir is resolved. US military assistance of this quantity and quality that can only be used to “hold” the Chinese and not recover any Indian territory captured by the Chinese, and Karl Kaesen, one shareholder. Of the National Security Council. India and Pakistan held six rounds of negotiations between December 1962 and May 1963 to resolve the Kashmir problem. Concrete results have emerged.ConclusionThe relationship between the two countries began to develop immediately after the independence of Pakistan. Pakistan appeared on the map of the world with the problems surrounding it and sought financial and economic assistance for a number of reasons that made it apply in the United States. Layakwat Ali Khan and those who deal with issues, including senior officials, have shown slanted in the United States. The relationship in the Ayyub Khan period increased dramatically between the two – known as the Alignment with the West and the transition period that Pakistan became more dependent on Pakistan. Pakistan The entry of Seto and Cento is derived from Southeast AsiaAnd impartiality qualified for the non-qualified coalition. Alliances are not our needs or our requirements, and if they are, they do not meet our needs. Pakistan wanted and needed a unified command such as Turkey under NATO or Seto as a defense against aggression, regardless of the angle that came from (India). Ayub Khan entered politics after a military coup and sought legitimacy through unconstitutional and non-representative methods. In the case where the leader does not have a popular source of support leaders, it fits in with a strong center of internal and external support. Pakistan has benefited from US economic and military assistance, one of the factors responsible for the adoption of the United States. Ayoub was taking economic and military aid from the great powers at the same time.