Introduction on wildlife and humans that result


Since the 1970s and 1980s, many researchers have
discovered that certain types of environmental chemicals produce natural
hormone-like effects on wildlife and humans that result in abnormalities
including genital dysplasia, infertility, reproductive system tumors,
neurobehaviour change and other deleterious effects associated with changes in
the body’s endocrine function. As most of these substances were found to have
estrogen-like effects at the time, the researchers called these types of
environmental chemicals environmentalists or “environmental
hormones.” As research progressed, more and more evidence was found that
some Environmental chemicals not only have similar estrogen-like effects, but
also have anti-androgens, interference with thyroid hormone and other effects.
In July 1991, from the ecology, biology, zoology, medicine, toxicology, law and
many other Scientists at Wingspread in Wisconsin, USA, discussed the important
role of hormones in the normal development of animals and the effects of
various chemicals on wildlife and the human endocrine system. The WINGSpread
Conference first proposed “Endocrine After that, a large number of studies
have found that compounds that are widely exposed in one’s life are also
interfering with human beings when exposed to low-dose exposures that were once
considered “safe” And other animal endocrine systems, thus the body’s
Reproductive, developmental, neurological, immune, metabolism have a broad
impact. Since then, the interference effect of environmental chemicals on the
endocrine system as a new global public health problem by the people’s

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Although there are many types of EDCs and their
structures are quite different, their interference with the bio-endocrine
system is mainly achieved at the cellular level by four ways, Mimicking the
action of endogenous hormones; antagonizing the action of endogenous hormones;
disrupting the production and metabolism of endogenous hormone receptors;
disrupting the production and metabolism of endogenous hormones. The former two
are also called receptor-mediated reactions, the latter two are called
non-receptor-mediated endocrine system in vivo, the nervous system and the
immune system are independent and interrelated systems, the three through the cytokines,
Hormones and other signaling molecules form networks that interact with one
another to maintain the normal functioning of the body. Studies have shown that
as EDCs in the environment are usually present as a mixture of many different
compounds, these compounds often exhibit complex effects due to the
similarities in their mechanisms of action when they enter the human or animal
body. This compound effect will destroy the balance between the three systems.
On the one hand, the endocrine disorder caused by EDCs will affect the normal
functions of the immune system and the nervous system. On the other hand, the
resulting immune system and nervous system disorders will further promote the
endocrine system dysplasia, the resulting chain reaction will lead to
biological reproduction behavior, perception behavior, as well as population
behavior disorders.

EEDs major harm to humans is caused by the endocrine
system, the immune system and nervous system disorders, disorders. EEDs caused
by changes in immune function, manifested in the reduction and suppression of
immune capacity and accelerate the occurrence of autoimmune lesions and cause
thymic atrophy, the immune damage cannot be ignored. EEDs affect the regulatory
role of the endocrine system in combination with other systems. Endocrine
disorders cause damage to other systems, causing carcinogenicity,
immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. Diabetes mellitus is a
chronic metabolic disease that seriously endangers human health. Traditionally,
the incidence of diabetes mellitus is mainly related to inheritance, obesity,
lack of exercise and unreasonable diet structure. In recent years,
epidemiological studies have found that EEDs are also the cause of diabetes
mellitus one of the reasons. The study found that people with the highest
levels of exposure to pollutants were 38 times more likely to develop diabetes
than those with the lowest exposure and that obesity was not a risk factor for
diabetes among those who did not meet the contaminant test criteria, Pollutants
have reached a certain level of exposure, obesity and diabetes were linked. The
dramatic increase in the number of obese people in the world in the past 20 to
30 years has made it clear that the environmental factors contributing to
obesity are only exaggerated from the overheated dietary intake and the
under-exergy consumed from exercise, and it seems more and more difficult to
obtain satisfactory explanations. With the further study of EEDs, there is a
new view that EEDs can promote the occurrence of obesity, which is one of the
causes of obesity. Some scholars called EEDs which are be able to cause obesity
“environmental obesity hormones”.

Impact on sexual development of children the
contamination of EEDs is closely related to the incidence of precocious puberty
in children and is one of the important causative factors. Children are
susceptible and susceptible to EEDs. Its susceptibility is related to
children’s behavioral habits, and mouth-to-mouth access makes children more
accessible to EEDs. Liu Haiwen et al on the toy samples of 35 EEDs were
detected, the results showed that all of these toy samples were detected EEDs,
the detection rate of bisphenol, dibutyl phthalate, and diisooctyl ester
Higher, at least two or more EEDs were detected in a single sample. The
detection rate and higher concentrations of phthalates are one of the most
widely used synthetic organic compounds in the world. At the same time, even if
the content of these estrogens in toys is very low, it is possible that they
may be dissolved by gas or by body fluids and taken up by children. In most
cases, children are less able to deal with environmental poisons than adults,
so they are more sensitive to environmental poisons. Moreover, children are
more vulnerable to environmental toxicants due to their rapid growth and
development. Exposure to EEDs during the first trimester can disrupt
reproductive organ differentiation, and when the mother is exposed to low doses
of BPA, it changes the timing of fetal organ formation and development. After
birth, especially adolescent EEDs into the body, then interfere with the
reproductive system development process, causing many types of adolescent
developmental abnormalities, the common cause of EEDs on breast estrogen caused
pseudo-precocious puberty.



Thus, EEDs come from a wide range of sources with complex
and changeable characteristics as well as great harm. At present, there is no
universally valid experimental system and method for the study of environmental
endocrine disruptors. The research hot spots are still the identification of
environmental endocrine disruptors and the qualitative and risk assessment of
environmental endocrine disrupting effects. At present, there are still some
limitations on the research of EEDs in various countries. In the United States,
for example, funds for the EEDs project are mainly used to study human health
effects (accounting for almost 69%), 18% for studying ecological effects and
11% for exposure evaluations. There is less research on the relationship
between exposure to EEDs and detrimental effects of the population and fewer
human-induced risks, and most of these are limited to the study of the
relationship with breast cancer. In the future, we should further study the
parameters affecting the environmental endocrine disrupting, and the research
object should be extended to more species. As for the risk assessment of humans
and animals, it is necessary to understand the overall state of pollution, the
environmental behavior of endocrine disruptors and their effects on humans and
animals. Moreover, the mechanism of disturbances and the interaction of various
disruptors must be clearly studied. At present, the risk assessment model for a
single pollutant has been established, but new models and evaluation methods
need to be explored to solve the complex effect of multiple pollutants. In
addition, the issue of disposal and disposal of environmental endocrine
disruptors is imminent. Many environmental pollutants have reproductive
toxicity, environmental feminization or the environmental toxicity of
reproductive toxicity of mankind is an important issue to be solved.