Introduction: implementation of the blood-testing program, a total

Introduction: There is no consistent
and/or reliable estimate of the amount of doping that occurs among athletes at
the elite level of competition. In 2001, the international governing body for
athletics created a blood-testing method to detect suspicious hematological make-up
of elite athletes. Methods: Since
the implementation of the blood-testing program, a total of 7,289 blood samples
were collected from 2,737 athletes both participating and not participating in
international athletic competitions. Demographics were collected on the samples
including the age, sex, nationality, and date of birth of the athlete;
collection data; sport; venue; and instrument used were also taken into
consideration. The data collected is quantitative in nature. The period in
which the prevalence of blood doping in the samples was predicted by comparing empirical
cumulative distribution functions (how much a variable accumulates) of the
abnormal blood sample scores to different subpopulations with spread out
cumulative distribution functions. Results:
Researchers predicted a difference between the endurance and nonendurance
athletes, but findings also uncovered nationality to be the major culprit in
the diverse result of the samples. The prevalence for blood doping had a wide
range of 1% to 48% for the many subpopulations assessed, and a mean of 14% was
identified for the entire population that was evaluated in the study. In
certain cases, secondary polycythemia was identified under the health risks
associated with blood manipulations. Conclusions:
When evaluated at a population stand point (in this study a population of
samples), hematological data can uncover the estimated prevalence of blood
doping among elite athletes. The study’s findings suggested that the world’s
elite athletes are not only diverse in physiological and anthropometric factors
but also in their blood samples, while the different countries have contrasting
opinions on blood doping. When these concepts and results are applied to each
individual level, the biomarkers that were introduced in the Athlete Biological
Passport paradigm, can be used to analyze the different physiological
characteristics and behavioral heterogeneities.