Understandings of these
ethical principles are crucial for researchers because they need to follow the
predetermined rules that set as guide to conduct their research. Besides that,
researchers use these ethic principles to support their outcomes regarding how
to treat their research participants and the information that they collect from
According to Lund Research
Ltd (2012), there are five major ethical principles that used to conducting
research including beneficence, informed consent, anonymity and confidentiality,
Avoiding deceptive practices and right to withdraw.
Beneficence is indicated to
the requirement of the researcher to maximizing benefits for the every
participant and at the same time minimizing harm to the every participant.
There are examples of harm that the participants can be experienced, which are body
harm, mental distress and psychological discomfort. Therefore, the first
principle focus to the essential for researchers to work of free from biases,
prejudices, and researchers need to understand clearly that their work is might
cause effect to the someone’s lives.
taking the informed consent, participants must understand that they are one of
the parts in the research and should know what researchers need from them. In
the inform consent, they must written that information regarding the purpose of
the study, the method that they used to conduct the research, the possible
result and conclusion of the study. Furthermore, in the informed consent also
need to include the contain details such as demands in the studies, uneasiness
of participants, risk and difficulty that the participants may experience.
Definition of anonymity is protecting
the participants. Even though the researchers that conducting the study also
cannot make assumptions about whom the informers according to information
provided. While confidentiality means prevention and protection from leakage of
information regarding a participant’s identity to other than authorized
Based on Data Protection Act
(1998), as an ethical principle, each individual is privileged to be given
privacy and confidentiality protection by protecting their personal identity
and secret data. Besides that, they are also given the opportunity to decide on
time and how the information is being held or shared.