IntroductionIn leadership as social interactions. Teachers and principals
IntroductionIn this paper, three theory-based models of leadership are discussed. Leadership is defined as “the interaction of two or more member of a group that often involves a structuring or unstructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members…Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competitiveness of others in the group” (Lindahl, 2008, p.301). Shared leadership, distributed leadership, and transformational leadership are potential leadership models that can be utilized to create strong organizational communities and teachers.Shared Leadership According to Lindahl (2008, p.301), shared leadership signals a shift from individual achievement and meritocracy toward a focus on collective achievement, shared responsibility, and the importance of teamwork. Shared leadership is all about everyone doing something and not just one person. In studies, it has been found strong relationships between leading, learning, and teaching. According to Printy and Marks (2006, pg.126), there are three shifts in shared leadership thinking. The first shift describes leadership as distributed. Tasks should be carried out by people of all grade levels and not just left up to one person to complete. Second shift has leadership as social interactions. Teachers and principals need to have strong communication with each other. Having common goals and influences really helps teachers to grow together. Third shift describes leadership as a process of learning. Teachers should observe one another to help each other as well as attending numerous professional developments to grow as a teacher. For shared leadership to be established, teachers and principals have to be open about different learning opportunities from each other. Teachers need to be able to successfully work together in their teaching teams, grade level teams, department teams, and as a whole staff. In order to be a successful teacher leader, teachers should have some of these key sets of skills: building trust and rapport, organizational diagnosis, dealing with the process, using resources, managing the work, and building skill and confidence in others (Lindahl, 2008, p.303)According to Printy and Marks (2006, pg.128), principals control, to some degree, who sits on various committees or participates in other decision making settings. They also must set goals and expectations for the school in order to establish teacher involvement. Also in order to have successful shared leadership, principals should monitor student learning closely to see that the school wide expectations for learning are being met (Printy & Marks, 2006, p.128).Distributed Leadership Distributed Leadership is a relatively new theory and has many different meanings. According to Bennett, Wise, Woods, and Harvey (2003 p.6), distributed leadership is defined as leadership from a remote (physical) location, using only technological means of communication (e-mail, web-based, etc). In other words, distributed leadership is the role of one person doing a task. Decisions about who does what is based on the task at hand and not where you are in service years. According to the lecture videos in Week one, there is still a formal leader at the top who can assume control and make decisions if necessary. Distributed Leadership is known for the teacher’s expertise rather than their years of service. Teacher skills will be utilized based on the task at hand. To be successful, it requires high levels of trust and respect amongst the staff members. There are three distinctive elements of the concept of distributed leadership (Bennett, Wise, Woods, & Harvey, 2003, p.7). It highlights leadership as an emergent property of a group or network of interacting individuals. This means there is more than one leader that express their expertise in different ways. It is not just one person working on the task at hand. The second element is openness of the boundaries of leadership. This means finding the right people for the task. Being open to who should be brought into the leadership and how they can effectively contribute to it. Lastly, the third element discusses the varieties of expertise that are distributed across a lot, not just a few. This means having more than one person there discussing the task at hand with that strong expertise on that topic. Having multiple people work together on one task with many different perspectives, the work at hand may turn out a lot better (Bennett, Wise, Woods, & Harvey, 2003, p.7).Transformational Leadership kjhjhkjhConclusionAll three leadership models presented, shared, distributed, and transformational seek to create strong organizational communities that strive to achieve meaningful goals. The distributed leadership model is more individually task or skill-oriented in how it develops leadership, harnessing and developing the qualities of each individual. The transformational model seeks to enable the individual to move beyond their given skill-set to a point that they can become more autonomous in their leadership. The servant model hopes to achieve organizational goals by dedicating all efforts and resources to meeting individual needs. At Palmer Elementary School, of the models discussed, a shared leadership model is the one most closely followed or applied. There certainly are pockets of leadership and the administration allows those teachers with innate leadership skills to function as leaders. Certainly, the model could be more effectively employed, but by having identified it steps can be taken to improve and develop as an organization with a focus on distributed leadership.References:Bennett, Nigel; Wise, Christine; Woods, Philip A and Harvey, Janet A (2003). Distributed Leadership: A Review of Literature. National College for School Leadership. 2-57.Lindahl, R. (2008, October). Shared leadership: Can it work in schools?. In The Educational Forum (Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 298-307). Taylor & Francis Group.Printy, S. M., & Marks, H. M. (2006). Shared leadership for teacher and student learning. Theory into Practice, 45(2), 125-132.