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It took hundreds of thousands of years for the human population to reach one billion and less than 200 years for it to increased to approximately 7.5 billion. Many scientists and ecologists calculated the sustainable population to be about two billion people, and they think that the human population has now reached its carrying capacity. Therefore, humans need to manage their resources and food production more carefully so that everyone has enough. As the human population increases, farming practices and technology in agricultural machinery have been improving to maximise crop yields and feed the growing population. Farmers have used pesticides and fertilizers on crops and animals (to maximise yields or egg production) and shortening the amount of time needed for the products to be ready to be sent to the market. Although pesticides are used in conventional farming to maintain crop health and prevent infestation from pests, an alternative way to feed a growing population is organic farming. Organic farming only relies on ecosystem management and does not use any kind of chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Canada’s Organic Products Regulations became operative on June 30, 2009. The Regulations ensure that all products that are labelled as “organic” must be certified by government-approved organizations. Any non-compliance with the maximum residue limits will be referred to Health Canada, and if necessary, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency will retrieve the products from the marketplace. (Source:, farmers are able to sell organic crops at a higher price since it has better quality and nourishment, but organic farming often struggles to produce larger yields because a lot of the crops are damaged by pests. With the increasing human population, there is limited land to grow crops to feed everyone. Therefore, the future of farming is at the heart of the global development debate: should farmers focus on conventional farming (maximizing yields) or organic farming. Conventional farming have negative effect on ecosystems, such as using pesticides and fertilizers that causes oil contamination and water pollution, which impacts both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; whereas organic farming requires more land. Since more lands are required to grow crops, more forests and rainforests would be cut down, which destructs the terrestrial ecosystem and the habitat of other organisms. When large areas of forest are damaged by fire or are cut down, the trees and other producers can no longer remove carbon dioxide from the air; hence large quantities of carbon dioxide gas will be released into the atmosphere. Organic farming is not necessarily beneficial to the environment. In fact, organic agriculture produce more methane than conventional farms. For example, livestock, especially cattle, release methane gas as they digest food. Rice fields, in which rice plants are partially under water, release methane, as well. Methane is a greenhouse gas, which contributes to global warming. However, organic farming builds healthy soil and helps conserve water. Overall, organic farming is obviously better for the health of human population.