Lactate of both processes starts with the production

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Lactate of both processes starts with the production

 

Lactate
femenation-anaerobic is an example of anaerobic. Lactic acid is made instead of
ethanol, when vertebrate muscle tissues respire anaerobically within muscle
fibres. However, when aerobic respiration isn’t able to fully meet the need for
the energy needed by contractions, lactic acid fermentation takes place in the
muscle fibres. The main waste outcome of lactic acid fermentation is lactic
acid (Clegg, 2000).

 

Aerobic
requires oxygen to work where as anaerobic doesn’t. However, they both make ATP,
despite the fact anaerobic makes less, the first part of both processes starts
with the production of glycolysis, the stages after glycolysis alter (Burrows
et al.n.d. 2016).

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Anaerobic
respiration isn’t as efficient as aerobic respiration because the glucose
molecules are not broken down totally (Fullick, Coates Andrea and Ryan Lawrie, n.d.).

 

Anarobic
vs Aerobic comparison

 

 

 

The main purpose of oxidative
phosphorylation is to transfer electrons from NADH and FADH2 and use
them to power ATP production.
Oxidative phosphorylation is the formation of hydrogen ions together with
oxygen forming water and the electrons pass along a respiratory chain which is also
known as an electron transfer chain whilst using their energy to make ATP molecules.
For every one molecule of NADH, it creates three ATP molecules. When oxygen is
present it largely increases the production of ATP (Rsc.org,
2017).

Oxidative
phosphorylation

 

 

CO2 — none from glycolysis, two from the
middle step and four from the cycle totals 6.
ATP — two from glycolysis, none from the middle step
and two (NTP) — count as ATP — from the cycle totals 4.
NADH — two from glycolysis, two from the middle step
and six from the cycle totals 10.
FADH2 — two from the cycle totals 2 (Physiologymodels.info, 2017)

Since the first
glucose atom produces two particles for the middle step the above counts must
be multiplied. Consolidating those counts with the ones from glycolysis we get
the accompanying items:

 

Generally, it’s
as though every two-carbon acetyl-CoA coming into the cycle from the middle
step leaves the cycle as two (2) carbon dioxide atoms. The underlying take-up
substrate, oxaloacetate, is recovered. Three (3) particles of NADH are created.
One (1) atom of FADH2 is delivered. One (1) high-vitality nucleotide particle
(NTP) is delivered by substrate-level phosphorylation. Coenzyme An assumes a
few parts in these responses.

Kerbs Cycle

 

The
link reaction converts pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A.One carbon atom is removed
from the pyruvate in the process of CO2.Acetate is made when pyruvate is oxidised.
The formation of acetyl coenzyme A, is a mixture of acetate and coenzyme A,
within this reaction no ATP is created (Burrows et al.n.d. 2016).

Link
reaction

 (I.pinimg.com, 2017)

Figure
4: Shows the three-step process of glycolysis

 

Two
molecules of pyruvate the salt element of a three-carbon organic acid is the
result of one molecule of glucose that has been oxidised within the glycolysis process.
Glucose-splitting is included in this change, thus its name (glycol-lysis). All
the enzymes that activate the responses of glycolysis are disintegrated in the
cytosol, whilst glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm, outside of the mitochondria.
There are three steps to the glycolysis process; Phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation
(Burrows et al.n.d. 2016).

Glycolysis

 

Glycolysis,
the link reaction, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation are the four
stages of aerobic respiration.

 

 

Describe
the four stages of aerobic respiration (glycolysis, link reaction, Krebs cycle
& oxidative phosphorylation) and the ATP yield within each stage. Compare
& contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration (use lactate fermentation as
an example of anaerobic respiration).

 

Part D
(assessment criterion 1.4)

 

 

The
second thermodynamic law clarifies that it is unobtainable to produce a cyclic
repeating process which transforms heat totally into work. Therefore, without
using work its unachievable to have a process which transfers heat from cool
objects to warm (Studios, 2017).

 

The
first Thermodynamic law states the overall amount of energy in the universe it
especially states that the total amount never changes. Concluding energy can
never be destroyed it can only solely be moved from one object to another or
change form (Khan Academy,
2017).

 

 

Within
the active transport process are four varies proteins established in the membranes
of the cell, they have the ability to transport molecules through the membrane,
this is called p-class pumps. ATP is required to enable transport to take place.
Sodium-potassium pumps along with calcium pumps are examples of specific pumps.
To facilitate transport both into and out of the cell, a molecular ion will
firstly fuse to the main site on the protein, following on from this an ATP
will fuse to a secondary site (Sciencing.com, 2017).

 

Light
is emitted by living creatures such as fungi, fireflies, glow worms, fish and
squid this process is known as bioluminescence. This process can only
materialise when ATP is available as a source of energy. An analogy of ATP is
its like the battery for a light bulb. The larger the battery the brighter the
light is, therefore more ATP produces brighter bioluminescence. The most
accurate method to measure the amount of ATP within varies materials is to use
bioluminescence (Sciencing.com,
2017).

 

 

 

Energy
is produced from Glucose this is known as cellular respiration. The first stage
of cellular respiration is when the glucose is changed to pyruvate, which then
produces two ATP. Providing oxygen is readily available the pyruvate molecule
continues through the aerobic respiration creating 34 extra ATP molecules. However,
if no oxygen is readily available this is known as the anaerobic respiration process,
where no extra ATP is made. Aerobic respiration makes energy for out cells in
the human body to use. In cellular respiration ADP is one of the starting
molecules, its made when one of the phosphate groups on ATP is lost. However,
ADP is simple to change back into ATP, which occurs in cellular respiration (Sciencing.com, 2017).

 

ATP
can work as an on-off switch when bonding with particular parts of protein
molecules in support of other intracellular chemical reactions that have the
ability to control messages being sent between different macromolecules within
the cell.

 

Cell
division goes through the process of cytokinesis, within this process ATP is required
to grow the size and its energy capacity from the new daughter cell. In this
instance to be able to start the process of DNA synthesis ATP is applied giving
the daughter cell a complete replica of the DNA coming from the parent cell. ATP
has an important role within the DNA and RNA synthesis process with one of the
main building blocks being used by RNA polymerase to create the RNA molecules.
A contrasting form of ATP is transformed into a deoxyribonucleotide called the
dATP enabling it to be made into DNA molecules for DNA synthesis (Sciencing.com, 2017).

 

During
physical movement of the muscle require ATP.When muscle contraction happens
myosin heads join to bonding sites on the actin myofilaments with the
assistance of ADP cross-bridge, which is where the extra phosphate ion is
released from ATP,Within the released phosphate it contains stored energy
granting the myosin to move it’s head that is presently bonded to, allowing
movement with the actin. ATP then bonds together with the myosin head,
following the muscle contraction process resulting in conversion to ADP with an
additional phosphate ion.

 

ATP
is also known as adenosine triphosphate is a high energy molecule made from ADP
it has 3 phosphates, loosing one sugar (hydrolysis) then becomes ADP which
creates the energy required in the following processes.

 

Identify
five cellular process which require ATP; at least one example must be of an
anabolic process.

 

Part C
(assessment criterion 1.3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Endocytosis is
the process of moving molecules into cells. The molecule begins by moving into
a pocket of the cell membrane then this pocket pinches off the membrane into
the cytoplasm forming a vesicle that is now able to move around in the cell.
There are three types of endocytosis, pinocytosis which allows small molecules
to enter the cell, phagocytosis which is when the bacteria enters the cell
these are known as non-specific. The third type is called a receptor which is a
mediated endocytosis this is called specific. Exocytosis follows a process of
leaving the cell, then the vesicle pinches off the Golgi apparatus following
this the vesicle heads for the cell membrane, next the vesicle starts to fuse
with the cell membrane. This concluding in the vesicle becoming part of the
plasma membrane making the contents flow out of the cell. (Clegg, 2000).

Cell regulation and development
using proportion of endocytosis along with Exocytosis is a further
responsibility of the cell membrane. The endocytosis process takes out lipids
and protein from the cell membrane whilst substances are incorporated. On the
other hand, in the Exocytosis, vesicles comprising of lipids and proteins fix
to the membrane of the cell resulting in a larger cell. A variety of proteins
and lipids make up a cell membrane (ThoughtCo, 2017).

Active transport
has two types as mentioned before are exostosis and endocytosis.

 

(Images.slideplayer.com,
2017)

   

Figure 3:
The process of Active Transport Across the Cell Membrane

Active transport is where the
molecules or ions alongside
a concentration gradient which means particles naturally move from an area of a
low concentration to an area of  high
concentration that don’t normally appear, suggesting enzymes and energy are
essential. Passive transport in contrast is the opposite to active transport,
the movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to a
lower concentration area so does not need Adenosine triphosphate ATP which is a
form of energy to help go uphill like sperm would need.

Both Simple
diffusion and osmosis have similarities except in simple diffusion, the solute
particles are the bits that move whereas in osmosis, the solvent (normally
water) moves across a membrane to dilute the solute particles. Diffusion can
occur in any mixture, including one which includes a semipermeable membrane,
while osmosis always occurs across a semipermeable membrane

 

 

(Blog-Sciencescore,
2017)

 

Figure 2: Process of Osmosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Osmosis is the diffusion of water
molecules across a membrane that is partially permeable, considering water
makes up the majority of the living cells whilst cell membranes are partially
permeable you can see the importance for osmosis, three examples of osmosis
are; hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions all forms of passive
transport. The is also a process called reverse osmosis which is as it says the
reversal of the osmosis diffusion process, as exemplified in figure 2 below (Clegg, 2000).

 

(Commons.wikimedia.org, 2017)

 

Figure 1: Facilitated diffusion across
the cell membrane

 

 

 

Across the membrane at all are then enabled
to do so by the help of a particularly large molecule helping through the channel
proteins which function like doorways imbedded in the cell membrane. This large molecule makes itself into a pore that is big enough to
allow a substance known as a globular protein to diffuse threw it this being
called a carrier. The pore assembles when the substance is present then closes
when the substance is no longer present. In all forms of diffusion, the energy
is provided from the kinetic energy of the molecules involved. Metabolism is
not needed to give energy. One example of a facilitated diffusion is the
movement of ADP into mitochondria and the transformation into ATP on exit of
the mitochondrion (Clegg, 2000).

Facilitated diffusion is the motion of
substances that may otherwise not diffuse

 

 

Simple diffusion occurs across the
cell membrane where the membrane is fully permeable to the solute, or where the
pores in the membrane are large enough for a solute to pass through it (Clegg,
2000). This process is known as simple diffusion and is when the diffusion
doesn’t need the aid of
transmembrane proteins. The process of filtration enables Solute and solvent
molecules and ions to cross a membrane. If the molecules are small enough to
pass through the filter they can.

 

Passive transport includes four
different types which are named; Simple diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, osmosis and Filtration.

There are two sorts of cell
transport systems which allow molecules to exocytose and endocytosis the
intracellular membranes they are known as; passive
transport and active transport.

The cell membrane also known as
the plasma membrane is a narrow semi-permeable membrane which surrounds the
cytoplasm of a cell. The function of the cell membrane is to safeguard the stability
of the contents of the cell by allowing specific substances into the cell, in
conjunction blocking other substances out. Keeping the cells shape whilst
helping support it, is another of the membranes job. The cell membrane consist
of a phospholipid biolayer across which substances are transported in and out
of the cell (Clegg, 2000).

In this essay I am going to
compare and contrast the import and export of substances across the cell
membrane this will include simple diffusion, osmosis, channel and carrier
proteins and active transports role.

In a short, illustrated essay,
compare & contrast the import and export of substances across the cell
membrane. You should make reference to: simple diffusion including osmosis;
different characteristics of channel and carrier proteins; and active transport.

Part B
(assessment criterion 1.2)

 

 

 

 

 

Organelle

Ultrastructure

Function

 
 
Plasma
Membrane

 
 
Made
up of Phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates.
 
 
Arranged
in a fluid phospholipid bilayer with protein pores.
 
 
Contains
protein receptors (Boyle and Senior, 2008).

 
 
Provides
a barrier to separate the living cell from its surrounding environment.
 
Allows
the regulation of materials entering and exiting the cell.
 
Provides
attachment sites for extracellular effectors such as hormones and growth
factors (Boyle and Senior, 2008).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Nucleus

Has
a pored double layered envelope, the outer layer of which is contiguous with
the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contains
dark and light chromatin (Boyle and Senior, 2008).
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contains
nucleoli

The
nuclear envelope separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytosol. The
pores allow for communication between the nucleus and the surrounding
cytoplasm. The contiguous nature of the outer membrane facilitates the easy
transport of proteins from the ER. The nuclear envelope dissolves to allow
cell division.
 
Dark
Chromatin (heterochromatin) is tightly packed DNA that is not currently being
read.
Light
Chromatin (Euchromatin) is more loosely packed DNA that is being read.
 
Nucleoli
produce ribosomes, a cell structure that produces proteins (Boyle and Senior,
2008).

Rough
Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER)

Dotted
with ribosome giving it characteristic rough appearance.
 
 
 
 
Consist
of large sheet of membrane folded over many times into stacked layers called
cisternae (Boyle and Senior, 2008).
 

rER
anchors the ribosomes preventing the diffusion of produced proteins
throughout the cytosone
 
 
The
cisternae provide storage for manufactured proteins (Boyle and Senior, 2008).

Smooth
Endoplasmic Reticulum (sER)

 
Not
dotted with ribosomes therefore not giving it a smooth appearance (Boyle and
Senior, 2008).

(sER)
Relies upon the particular cell type along with lipid and steroid hormone
synthesis, the breaking down of lipid-soluble toxins in liver cells and
dictate of calcium dispersion in muscle cell compression (Boyle and Senior,
2008).
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Golgi
apparatus
(The Golgi
apparatus was discovered by an Italian physician named Camillo Golgi in 1897)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lots
of flattened sacks squashed together (Boyle and Senior, 2008).
 
 
 
 
 
Has
a maturing face.
 
Has
a forming face closest to the rER.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Processes
proteins for secretion attaching sugar monomers as the proteins passes
through the apparatus (Boyle and Senior, 2008).
 
Where
vesicles are formed.
 
Absorbs
vesicles from the ER.
 
 
 
 

Lysosome

Small
spherical vesicles bound by a single membrane.

Contain
digestive enzymes used in the breakdown of varies beneficial and non-beneficial
cellular content (Boyle and Senior, 2008).
 

Mitochondria

Rod
shaped or cylindrical large in comparison to other organelles.
 
Double
membrane interior membrane folded into cristae contains an aqueous solution
called the matrix (Boyle and Senior, 2008).

Function
is to make atp through aerobic respiration.
 
Folded
cristae provide a large internal service area for the complex reactions of
aerobic respiration to take place (Boyle and Senior, 2008).

 

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