proposes Employment National Strategy (Stratégie
Nationale d’Emploi SNE) 2015-2025 that aims going beyond traditional active
market policies related to work and unemployment issue. Actually, this strategy
puts employment in center of public action and adopts an approach to
particularly integrate economic, financial, budgetary and institutional
dimensions. Their main objective are to meet youth expectation by gathering all
conditions to create enough and suitable work opportunities, and also reducing
inequalities in term of gender and territorial disparities.
Promotion of productive
employment, valorization of human capital and a better governance of labor
market are mandatory to ensure decent lives for vulnerable populations and sustainably fight against
poverty and precariousness. They are the challenges that the government is
facing in such conjuncture with mutations.
The first step
for SNE was about diagnostic of employment in Morocco to build a data base and
identify the major issues to address in priority, in order to draw its
objectives and conceive its interventions. This first step was done in
association with different stakeholder of work market, social partners and
ministerial departments. Later, I will be presenting the strategic axes of SNE as
well as the operational objectives to implement this new approach. SNE has
drawn clear measures with different including different stakeholders, between
2015 and 2012, that are supposed to lead to social cohesion under the different
economic and demographic mutations, at national and international levels.
By the end, I
will suggest some recommendations and highlight major risks that SNE has to
address in order to be a more participative and effective approach.
Employment challenge facing morocco
During the last
decennia, Morocco has known a sustainable evolution, yet many problems still
persist. High unemployment of youth, underpaid jobs, low rate of active women,
weak incomes and non-productive jobs, inactivity of freshly graduated students,
informal sector, etc. those are the main characteristics of employment in
Morocco, which us creating a non-favorable situation for population, economy
and social cohesion.
By 2025, Morocco
will know a high demand of decent jobs, related to the demographic transition
(higher active population and population aging), and to social mutations
(urbanization, social and demographic progress). A higher number of qualified
young graduated will call for the market. Migration trend has also impact on
urban job employment. Despite the sectorial politics of government and the
economic development, there is no signification job opportunities creation.
mutations, there are other factors that impact employment, in terms of quantity
and quality of opportunities, which are:
Macroeconomic policiesSectorial policiesModernization of job units
At the economic
level, the commercial deficit has led to a weak growth of employment,
especially in competitive sectors. In the last years, sectorial policies did
lead to a compensation of the negative effect of productivity regarding
employment growth. Thus, it is imperative to acquire new market shares and
strengthen investments in services’ sector in order to improve its
In 2010, 1,167
million of people change their residency, which helped to urbanize habitations.
Internal migrations represent 93% of this flow, where 50% is due to interurban
migration, while 23% represent the rural-urban movement. HCP (Haut Commissariat
au Plan) is expecting a less important evolution of migration by 2025.
There are other
structural constraints that suffer the employment market, such as:
Disequilibrium between the offer and the
increasing demand of employmentSegmentation between public employment, formal
private employment and unformal private employmentGap between jobs in trems of productivity,
salaries, social protection and stability.
Weak Public policies
did always suffer from disequilibrium and low quality of employment market.
Actually employment policy was only focused on the insertion of freshly
graduated and was completely disconnected from other public policies at all
decisional levels, whilst the educative system has many failures to meet the
market demand. The policy in term of social protection is limited regarding the
covered risks and the covered population. Meanwhile, public employment offered
only to a limited number of active populations, not in all the kingdom
territory. This leads to a lack in the programs that concern some more
categories like women, youth, handicapped, workers in isolated areas, etc.
Government measures in place to address the
SNE has a
vision to create a voluntarist scenario that which builds on meeting the demand
of employment market by creating job opportunities. The following table
represents the main figures of this vision: