Movable deprived kinetics owing to catalyst poisoning

Movable
devices such as mobile phones, laptops etc., have need of energy and power
but meanwhile, the functioning charging lifetime of these power sources is not
being improved in agreement with the user demand. In the previous era, the use
of liquefied fuels in devices has been a substitute and fascinating field of
research 1, 2. Primarily, wide efforts have been made on direct methanol fuel
cells (DMFCs) owing to their activity, high energy density, and easy accessibility
of fuel by slight contaminant emissions and efficient energy conversion 3. Though,
the commercial use of DMFCs is restricted because of certain serious complications
such as (i) process at controlled concentration, (ii) deprived kinetics owing
to catalyst poisoning through carbon intermediates produces in methanol
oxidation, causing in reduced fuel performance (iii) at room temperature
activity is very low 4-6, (iv) methanol crossover, which confines the usage
of high methanol
concentrations, normally less than 2 M 7 and lastly (v) the expensive Pt (Pt
is precise catalyst for the DMFCs). To overcome all of the above-mentioned
problems, DFAFCs have attained attention in current time. Formic acid is comparatively
less poisonous than other liquid fuels and it has very high open circuit
potential (1.450 V) theoretically than direct formic acid fuel cells (1.190 V) and proton exchange membrane
fuel cells (1.229 V) 8. Moreover, Formic acid also has a lower
crossover flux as compared to methanol and ethanol over nafion, or the proton
exchange membrane, because of the repulsion existing by the membrane terminal
groups. Therefore it accelerates proton transport in the anodic part of the
fuel cell which leads to high energy conversion 9. Although, the energy
density of formic acid is 2086 WhL-1 which is smaller as compared to
methanol (4690 WhL-1), it transmits additional energy per unit
volume as compared to methanol owing to the fact that concentrated formic acid (20
M or 70 wt %) can be used as a fuel comparatively low concentration of methanol
(2 M) 10. The further main benefit of formic acid to use as a fuel is its creation
from environmental leftover by the biomass conversion procedures 11.