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Media plays a very significant role in the modern society.  Over the years approach of media has refined immensely with an equally tremendous effect on the society. With globalization and advancement of technology, media has exceptionally grown but the question remain how can society rely on the news they are served with by various news channels? Are the bulletins accurate and unfiltered? Robert W. McChesney, rightly mentioned the rise of internet taking away the essence of commercial Journalism in his book “Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism is turning the Internet against Democracy”.
The recent incidents in California and Texas claimed over thirty lives, Las Vegas left fifty eight people dead and five forty six injured. Not to forget the Orlando shooting in June’16 which killed forty nine people and wounded fifty eight. Each location does hold its own tragedy but eventually shares the common ground of “Mass shooting”. Debate on gun control has been a controversial topic since the Sandy Hook Elementary shooting occurred in December 2012 until mass shooting in Sutherland Springs Texas. 
The research paper would compare how news is covered by media sources and what impact it leaves on the audience. Is it profit or mere rating that drives the media industry? Besides the role these news feed play on the society. Implementing theories such as the “limited effects theory”, class dominant theory and culturalist theory (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt) could aid in analyzing the impact of filtered and unfiltered news on the society.
Recent mass shooting has regenerated debate on gun control. “It’s not too soon” (November 2017) an editorial which appeared in The New York Times very vividly describes how gun control measures have not been considered a national issue since the Sandy Hook Elementary school attack leaving 28 dead on December 2012. Since 2012 there have been about 13 mass shooting incidents.

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These events have been merged into a larger discussion on personal rights. “Americans really like their guns. They own 42% of 650 million civilian firearms worldwide”(Kim Hjelmgaard USA today). With the increase in the number of incidents there has also been a significant increase in the ownership of guns.

The debates have been endless and has not served it’s purpose yet. Alia E.Dastagir of USA Today states gun control debate is more about identity than safety. Owning a gun has become a cultural trend. Guns have been a symbol of power since the war times. People fall into two categories when it comes to discussing the Second Amendment. One side take guns to be a symbol of safety, security and a means to protect family and self. On the other hand to some guns represent power, aggression, way to demand rights, and also threaten if needed. Pew Research Centre survey conducted in March and April of 2017 which studied a large number of people support preventing sale of guns by running a background check. 
Terrorism and mentally ill
The Manhattan attack was labelled as an act of terror where as the Las Vegas attack was a case of server mental illness. Mass media narrates such shooting attack as hate crime. Max Fisher and Amanda Taub of The NY times published an article which says classifying Las Vegas attack as terrorism might mean classifying guns as National threat requiring a response. 
Right after the Manhattan attack the administration immediately followed up by a series of tweets on extreme vetting programme and calling for the end of diversity visa program. No such instant narration was made on Gun Control after the Las Vegas or Texas mass shooting.
Fabricated Media  
“The size, concentrated ownership, owner wealth, and profit orientation of the dominant mass-media firms” (Herman and Chomsky, 2002). Corporations know how 
to run the media industry. Those in power feed the reporters with narratives they want the audience to hear, even the interview with experts seem clearly scripted. Besides making profit, competition to remain in the limelight tends to fabricate and filter news.
Propaganda Model  
Media do share an interest in such fabricated narratives which could be understood using the propaganda model.  Propaganda model first appeared in “Manufacturing Consent” authored by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman in 1988. The primary purpose of the model was to criticize the behavior of the mass media in the United States and the way the mainstream media structured and patterned to ‘protect’ elites business in particular(Shemelis 2016).  
Countries like the United States, Australia, France, India are democracies known for its freedom of press, freedom of thought and freedom of speech. 29 years ahead of the Propaganda model how well does the current media scenario fit in? The model precisely explains “how audiences are influenced and how political consent is created based upon institutional biases, pressures and constraints.” (Johnny Blackhatter 2015).
Quotes by various journalists on their thoughts of fabricated news appeared in “Filtering the news” an article published in 2001. It also describes how news get fabricated using the propaganda model. “If I allowed my honest opinions to appear in one issue of my paper, before 24 hours my occupation would be gone. The business of a journalist is to destroy the truth; to lie outright; to pervert; to vilify; to fawn at the feet of mammon, and to sell his country and his race for his daily bread. You know it and I know it and what folly is this toasting an independent press..Our talents,our possibilities and our lives are all the property of other men.” (John Swinton of the New York Times 1953). 


Fake news has a impact on political life and individuals. In “Manufacturing Consent” (Chomsky, Herman 1988), Goodman states “In fact, media manufacture our  consent. They tell us what those in power need them to tell us so we can fall in line”. Mass media is owned by bigger corporations and elite groups. Such high end reputed groups vest their interest in gathering large number of audience to make extra profits. The motive for running a show is more profit oriented rather than audience and moral driven.

Funding (Advertising)

Corporations look forward to gather audience to sell their advertised news rather than educating them. The cost of running media is much higher than what consumers pay. The primary source of funding for media corporate is through advertising. Major operating costs of media are covered by the advertisement commission. Why do advertisers want to pay and what do they pay for? It is for us the audiences. Besides their products they are also selling us. 

Sourcing Mass Media

Chomsky and Herman use the sourcing filter to describe reliance of media through various sources of information provided by the government, experts, business and funded and approved by the head. The fundamental is to manage the media. 


Flask described by Chomsky and Herman is raising a complaint or whistle blowing. Flask can be in the form of law suit, complaints, demanding compensations, appealing for a petition.
“We paid $3 billion for these television stations; we’ll decide what the news is. The news is what we tell you it is.”- The general manager of Fox news told this to 
Jane Akre and Steve Wilson in Florida over an investigative report on Monsanto’s bovine growth hormone in milk. They were later fired.(Filtering the news 2001).”


The book “Manufacturing Consent” was publishes during the cold war in 1988. In modern era the term anti communism can be used to represent various mass attacks and acts of terrorism. 
Impact on people
Written, visual, spoken or broadcasted mass communication reach a huge audience creating a culture by itself. Advancement of internet has sweeping effects (Robert McChesney) In the book Rich media , Poor Democracy: Communication in politics in Dubious , “internet holds the potential to undermine corporate and commercial control of media” (McChesney 2000).  In a survey published by the Pew Research Centre of media and Journalism conducted by Michael Barthel, Amy Mitchell AND Jesse Holcomb (December 2016), suggest most Americans believe “fake news” have an impact on the society. 64% of Americans say news fed to the public is fabricated to a large extent creating confusion among viewers.
Though the impact of mass media differs from person to person, the influence media holds can be estimated with the help of the following sociological perspectives (Houghton Mifflin Harcot 2016).

Limited?effects theory

The limited effect theory stated that media plays a very negligible effect in influencing a person. The argument stands on the parameter of choice. For instance how media narrates the debate on mass shooting and gun control and what narrations members of the media ask that would change the outcome and help audience get a clear picture. The theory plays a limited role as media now is far more widespread and dominant than it used to be. 

Class?dominant theory

The modern Era of media can fall into the class-dominant theory, where a corporate elite controls the media. “When ownership is restricted, a few people then have the ability to manipulate what people can see or hear” (Cliffnotes). The news is more fabricated and filtered. 

Culturalist theory

Combination of both the limited effect and class dominant theories is culturalist theory. The concept of having a choice out of arrange of options ranging from what to watch, how much to watch or not to watch at all. On the other hand the theory sees viewer’s playing an active role rather than passive in relation to media. People interpret and analysis news based on their knowledge and experience. To a fourteen year old owing a gun can be more of a style symbol whereas for a sixty year old it maybe a weapon for protection. The interpretations and impact is widely divergent based on various factors like age, gender, ethnicity, culture, background and religion.