Parasuraman, deemed to be unsatisfactory and will

Berry, and Zeithaml (1991b, p. 41) defined tangibles as ”the appearance of
physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication materials”.
Aghdaie and Faghani (2012), Nadiri, Hussain, Ekiz, and Erdogan (2008), Kim and
Lee (2011) and Lee, Lee, and Yoou (2000) discovered that tangibles may give
significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. In the context of airline
industry, the tangible dimensions refer equipment such as air conditioners,
communication devices. If these tangibles are inadequate, unavailable or in
poor conditions, then most likely customers will not feel satisfied with the
service of airline carrier. Therefore, airlines need to ensure that the
physical conditions of their aircrafts, facilities and equipment as well as the
reading and entertainment materials provide in-flight and the appearance of
their cabin crews are always tip-top.

            Reliability is described as ”the
ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately”
(Parasuraman et al., 1991b, p.41). In their pass research, the variable reliability
has been found to have significant influence on customer satisfaction (Aghdaie
& Faghani, 2012; Lee et al., 2000). In terms of airline industry,
reliability dimension is referred to as the degree to which a carrier is able
to provide precise and trustable services as promised to the customers. This
includes staff are sincere interest to help the customer
solve the problems, flight
schedule depart and arrive on time without delay, accurate and up-to-date
flight information, luggage safety and delivery and personal safety and
security. If the level of reliability is high, customers will definitely be
satisfied with the airline service. Hence, the airlines need to ensure that
their products and service are always trustable and reliable

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            Responsiveness may be described as
”the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service” (Parasuraman
et al., 1991b, p. 41). Responsiveness is a significant antecedent of customer
satisfaction (Aghdaie & Faghani, 2012; Kim & Lee, 2011; Lee et al.,
2000). In the airline context, responsiveness refers to the promptness of action
taken whenever there are requests or complaints from the customers. Immediate
action must be taken in order to provide the service assistance and help
needed. If the response time is poor then the service is deemed to be
unsatisfactory and will leave a negative impact on the customer’s satisfaction.
customer will perceive quality in a positive way only when the service provider
meets or exceeds his/her expectations (Robledo, 2001).

            Assurance can be described as ”the
knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and
confidence” (Parasuraman et al., 1991b, p. 41). Previous studies ((Clemes et
al., 2008; Lee et al., 2000; Yi & La, 2003have found that assurance poses a
significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. In the airline
perspective, it is referred as the ability of a carrier to make customers
confidence and trust towards the airline. Moreover, the capability to exhibit
credibility and courtesy will play a vital role in building customers’
confidence and trust.

            Empathy is referred to as “the
caring and individualized attention provided to the customer” (Parasuraman et
al., 1991b, p. 41). This dimension is referred to the carrier’s ability to
provide individualized attention to the customers. Empathy has been found to
have significant effect on customer satisfaction (Aghdaie & Faghani, 2012;
Clemes et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2000; Suki, 2014). A cabin crew who has a high
degree of empathy will have the ability to understand the feelings, needs and
wants of their customers. Customers will definitely feel appreciated and thus
establishing a good interpersonal relationship. Personal caring attention will
create a comfortable environment for customers during the flight.