PART have a 12 volt rating.Lead-acid cells have

PART A : Batteries Gather and present informations on the structure and chemistry of a Dry Cell or Lead-Acid Cell and evaluate it in comparison to one of the following:Type of CellsLead Acid CellsSilver button cellChemistry     &structure Anode Reaction: Pb(s)+ SO42-(aq) ? PbSO4(s)+ 2e-Cathode Reaction:PbO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2e- ? PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)Overall Reaction: Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2SO42-(aq) ? 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)These cells are made up of a lead anode, a lead dioxide cathode and sulfuric acid Anode Reaction:Zn(s) + 2OH- ? ZnO(s) + H2O + 2e-Cathode Reaction:Ag2O(s) + H2O(l) + 2e- ? 2Ag(s) + 2OH-Overall Reaction:Zn (s) + Ag2O (s) ? 2Ag (s) + ZnO (s)Made up of a silver oxide cathode, a zinc anode and an alkaline electrolyte (usually Potassium Hydroxide or Sodium Hydroxide)        Cost &practicalityCost :Lead acid batteries a fairly cost effective they can cost anywhere between 150 – 500 dollars.there mostly for automotive oriented purposes which helps drive starter motors in automobiles similarly you can get lead acid batteries for 25 – 80 dollars however these have a lower amperage and cant handle continuous high current draw and load these batteries are more suited for small motorbikes, and old appliances most common lead acid batteries have a 12 volt rating.Lead-acid cells have a large power-to-weight ratio, low cost and can supply high surge currents. They are usually used in motor vehicles, providing current to automobile starter motors at a low cost. As they are used by many different motor vehicles, they are very practical and are mass produced in china.Practicality:Lead-acid cells are very large and heavy low cost and can supply high surges of current.also have  Long life ,Lead is a reasonably expensive metal, making the cell is quite expensive tooAlso lead cell batteries are Rechargeable furthermore Electrolyte must be checked regularly which means there require maintenance also They are usually used in motor vehicles, providing current to automobile starter motors also there versatile which means lead acid batteries can be put in any form of transport which opens up a huge market. cost:Silver button cells are very cost efficient, with the price range being between 2- 8 dollars there mostly used for small gadgets like watches or car remotes which require low voltages usually mass produced in china.Practicality:Silver button cells are practical as they have a high energy to weight ratio, so they can be used in electronic equipment that require small but compact power sources like a watch. They are also cheap making them easy to obtain also had Relatively long life furthermore Constant output voltage and Non-rechargeable.Impact OnsocietyAbility to recharge makes cell suitable for vehicles, where the engine can recharge the cellsAllowed development of electric starters in vehicles for extra comfort for the modern world.Able to store solar energy created by the panels when connectedImportant for charge storage such as in remote regions like the outback,and area affected by natural disasters Small size has allowed for miniature electric appliancesNon-toxic nature has allowed for use inside the bodyEnvironmental impactThey have a long life rating so they                Don’t have to be discarded or recycled after one use only maintained.Lead acid cells contain Corrosive sulfuric acid which can pollute the environment if spillages occur which can have a massive effect on the environment.The Lead contained in the cells is toxic and electrodes and casings must be recycled furthermore exposure to lead causes anaemia and affects the brain.  They have to be discarded or recycled after one use making it not efficient and very wasteful.The Potassium hydroxide contained in the electrolyte is caustic and can harm living tissue.Contains no highly toxic materials that will harm the environment making it environmentally friendly. PART B : Radioisotope and Nuclear ChemistryDefine the term RadioisotopeA radioisotope as the name suggests is a radioactive isotope. It as an unstable atom with excess nuclear energy. This energy can be used to create a new alpha or beta particle, or be emitted as gamma radiation which is pure energy(EMR-Electromagnetic radiation). Radioisotopes and generally used in a medicine, industry, agriculture, art, archaeology, research and pharmacology making it very useful.Construct a table which details the characteristics of alpha, beta , and gamma radiation. Characteristics should include: nature of emission(particle or energy), ionising potential, penetrating ability, nuclear equation for the formation of the radiationRadiations typeAlpha (?)Beta (?)Gamma (?)General Equation for Radioactive DecayAZ(Z)N ——–> A-4Z-2(X)2-N-2 + 42He2+ + Q?zXA ——–> Z+1YA + -1e0XAY = XAY + Gamma RadiationsNature of ParticleParticle(Positive charge)Particle(Negative charge)Electromagnetic Wave (Energy) (No charge)Ionising PotentialHighModerateWeakPenetrabilityAlpha particles can be absorbed by a thin sheet of paper or by a few centimetres of air. As alpha particles travel through air they collide with nitrogen and oxygen molecules. With each collision they lose some of their energy in ionising the air molecule until eventually they give up all of their energy and are absorbed. In a sheet of paper the molecules are much close together so the penetration of alpha particles is much less than in air.Alpha particles have two protons and two neutrons which makes its Penetrability very low in fact it can’t even penetrate through a sheet of paper or a person clothing, however it can go through air.Beta particles travel faster than alpha particles and carry less charge (one electron compared to the 2 protons of an alpha particle) and so interact less readily with the atoms and molecules of the material through which they pass. Beta particles can be stopped by a few millimetres of aluminium.Beta particles have a minimum of one electron which makes it gives it a stronger penetrating power.Can penetrate air and paper but cant penetrate a sheet of aluminium.Has minimum 100x more penetrating power than alpha particles.Gamma rays are the most penetrating of the radiations. Gamma rays are highly energetic waves and are poor at ionising other atoms or molecules. It cannot be said that a particular thickness of a material can absorb all gamma radiation. Many centimetres of lead or many meters of concrete are required to absorb high levels of gamma rays. Can penetrate air, paper, aluminium or metal but high levels can only be stopped by centimetres of lead or multiple metres of concrete.ToxicityTouching the particle is not harmful unless it is ingested or inhaled as it is easily absorbed by cells and can do major damage to cells causing them to mutateIngesting or inhaling is not as harmful, but it can penetrate the skin unlike alpha particles and will damage cells.Extremely dangerous inside or outside the body . it Will mutate cells in low doses and while kill in high doses.Medical IsotopesExplain how the characteristics of an isotope make it suitable to be used in either diagnosis and or treatment. Characteristics should include: nature of emission (particle or energy), ionising potential, penetrating ability, nuclear equation for the formation of the radiation.IsotopeIodine 123usesDiagnostic tool use to locate thyroid cancertoxicityExcessive amount can kill or havealy damage the thyroid glands and the tissue and cells around it.Half lifeWith a half-life of 13 hours it is suitable to use on patients since the exposure will be over in a matter of hours,Iodine 123 emmists gamma which allows for excellent imagingNature of emissionEmits gamma radiation which has excellent used in the medical field due to its penetrabilityIonising abilityHas lowest ionisation potential although still very dangerous due to penetrating power and too much exposure can cause cancer cells to form this why it half life is crucial because it ensure the patients get the treatment fast and short lasting Nuclear equation for the formation of the radiationQuestions 4-8 Choose one radioisotope with medical use.Cobalt 60Describe how the radioisotope is used,is it therapeutic or diagnostic, what part of the body does the radioisotope target , how does the isotope (or radiation) enter the body. In an industrial situation, how the isotope is used needs to be clearly explained TherapeuticTreatment of cancerproduces gamma rays, which can be used to treat cancer by irradiating the affected areas of the bodyKills cancer cells along with other cellsExplain why its is used. Include relevant chemical equations, identify the type of radiation emitted,relate the use to the half life,chemistry behind use(relate to target)Releases gamma rays, which can be used to treat cancer by irradiating a patient to a  external beam created by radiotherapy machines. Fuerther more cobalt 60 has a suitable half-life for the process, being long enough to have a reasonable lifetime in the equipment about 5 years, but short enough to emit an adequate amount of intensity of radiation.Beta and gamma are emitted as shown in the equationAnalyse the benefits of the use of your radioisotopeProducers gamma rays, which can be used to treat cancer by irradiating a patient to a  external beam created by radiotherapy machines. Fuerther more cobalt 60 has a suitable half-life for the process, being long enough to have a reasonable lifetime in the equipment about 5 years.Analyse the problems of the use of your radioisotopesProduces gamma,alpha which not only kill cancer cells but also healthy cells in the process. Furthermore radioisotopes crate radioactive waste which hard to dispose of and hence why Because these “cobalt machines” were expensive and required specialists, cobalt therapy was a revolutionary advance in radiotherapy in the past but is now being replaced by other technologies such as linear accelerators Repeat steps 5 to 6 for a different radioisotopes with an industrial use (use relevant sub headings for the steps above Type of RadioisotopeSodium-24FieldIndustryRadiation producedBeta and gammaProductionNeutron bombardment of sodiumUseDetection of leaks in pipesIt can be added to the liquid in a pipe and then be tested for leaks in the pipes. If no radiation was detected from outside the pipe the pipes are good and leak free.If it leaks into the surrounding area then , it can be detected and the leak located easily.Suitability of half-lifeHas a half-life of 15 hours, which means that the liquid quickly becomes safe to use again and the environment is quickly decontaminated.DecayDecays into magnesium-24