sample has come forward for further testing of suspected monoclonal gammopathy,
many methods are used for detection such as, immunofixtation, ELISA, Clauss and
western blotting. Fibrinogen protein is found in the blood plasmas also known
as the glycoprotein made by the liver and found in the blood plasma that
consists of two identical subunits and is made up of A polypeptide chains (Ayman E, Ismail, 2012).


The best method to detect monoclonal gammopathy is
immunofixtation, that identifies specific proteins within complex mixtures, by
detecting presence of isotopes for e.g. heavy and light chain present in small
monoclonal immunoglobulin. Immunofixtation is highly sensitive, easy to perform
and cheap method, as it could detect a monoclonal antibodies sample under
electrophoresis band by using antibodies/antigen excess. The method requires
two steps, firstly current is applied this will allow the separation according
to the size of proteins and specific for each type of immunoglobulins. The
First step involves running each sample in identical lanes, to distinguish on
lane 1 general protein fixative is added as an indication of a marked
reference, whereas specific antisera is added to the remaining lanes. The presence
of antigen and antiserum present within the gel, will result in appearance of a
narrow band called immune complexes. As complexes and primary immunofixtation
are fixed within the gel using sensitive stain (acid violet), as to those that did
not fix will wash away from gel. The advantages of this techniques includes
easily read and interpreted, fast method to produce quick results and highly sensitive
allows any immunoglobulins missed out by protein electrophoresis to be detected
(David F, Keren.1987)

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