Physical beliefs are not judgments about one’s

activity, defined as any bodily movement that works with our muscles and definitely
requires more energy than resting. Walking around campus, running in the
quadrangle, dancing, swimming and stretching after a long time of sitting are
few samples of physical activity. It is also described assets of movement,
which enhance individual’s health condition, where greater amount of physical
activity provides more health benefits. People who can maintain a regular
regimen of activity that is longer duration or more intensity that is vigorous
are likely to derive greater benefits (Department
of Health and Human Services – Physical Activity Guidelines, 2008).

            More specifically, physical activity
remains an important behavior for promoting health, postponing or preventing
dominant musculoskeletal disorders such as mechanical low back pain, neck and
shoulder pain and decreasing the risk of developing coronary heart disease,
hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity and colon cancers (Vuori, 1995; and Jones et al., 1998). The consistent
influence on physical activity pattern among adults include confidence in one’s
ability to engage in regular activity or self–efficacy,
( Bandura, 1994) perceived self-efficacy is defined as people’s beliefs about
their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise
influence over evnts that affect their lives. In same manner, self-efficacy
beliefs determine how people fee, think, motivate themselves and behave.  Enjoyment of physical activity, support
from one other, positive beliefs and concerning the benefits of physical
activity and lack of perceived barriers to physical activity.

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            Equally, (Bandura,
1977, 1986, and 1997) self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in his or
her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce precise performance
abilities. It generally proves confidence for an individual to be able to exert
control over one’s own behavior and motivation. Moreover, self-efficacy has
shown its mark in influencing individual to participate in different activities.
Self-efficacy beliefs are not judgments about one’s skills, objectively
speaking, but rather about one’s judgments of what one can accomplish with those
skills (Bandura, 1986).  A strong sense
of self- efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal wee-being in many
ways. This only implies that that the judgment in accordance with self-efficacy
is not about one has but what one thinks one can do. Performance
accomplishments have proved to be the most influential source of efficacy
information because they are based on one’s own mastery experiences (Bandura,
1997). People who are active in participating in different activities affect
his or her own self-efficacy through the cognitive process of this information.
It only associates that if an individual views these participation as success,
projected self-efficacy increases; if these experiences are viewed as failures,
projected self-efficacy declines.

            Conversely, physical inactivity or
non-participation to any form of physical activities has shown increase on adults’
risk for numerous chronic health problems such as coronary heart disease,
hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and depression (Lee
I, et al., 2012; Cooney GM, et al., 2013; and Penejo FJ, et al., 2005).
Indeed, a recent report from the World Health Organization estimated that
physical inactivity causes 30% of heart disease, 27% of type 2 diabetes, and
21% – 25% of breast and colon cancers worldwide (WHO,
2016). These sets of information may indicate that physical inactivity
is a potent and prominent risk factor for health-related issues like chronic
disease and early death. This physical inactivity may be attributed to
different barriers that hinders group of individuals in participating in any
form of physical activity. These barriers to physical activity are factors
described as negative influence for physical activity participation. Knowing the benefits and significance
of engaging in the different physical activities, we also need to understand
why people become inactive or know the barriers that hinder their participation
in physical activities. A clear understanding of these reasons allows for the
creation of focused, informed strategies to reduce or eliminate barriers, to facilitate
the adoption and promotion of a more physically active lifestyle and to prevent
the occurrence of different health issues and problems. Although some of the
common barriers for physical activity have been known for some time,
collectively, the factors that limit regular physical activity participation
are more complex (Sallies & Hovell, 1990; and Sallis,
Hovell, & Hofstetter, 1992).

            Dishman and Sallis (1994)
categorized barriers to physical activity participation as personal,
environmental, and social. Personal barriers to physical activity are often the
focus on interventions because they are usually under the individual’s control.
These barriers include time limitations, motivation, energy, knowledge, environment,
and confidence. They become particularly complex when lifestyle habits need to
be changed. Environmental barriers are more difficult to change and include
occupation, milieu, weather, and availability of facilities. Social barriers
include socioeconomic status, cultural expectations, and support from family or
friends. School barriers included school policies, building schedules,
teachers’ skills and knowledge, curriculum, resources, finances, and
facilities. Similarly, Daskapan, et al (2006)
acknowledged certain barriers to physical activity among young people
especially students enrolled in the university and identified that there are
internal and external barriers. Furthermore, results revealed that lack of time
and the lack of energy are described as the most common external and internal
barriers, respectively, for university student to participate in physical

            Several studies explored the
influence and implications of different demographic factors like age, sex and
socio-cultural factor to barriers in physical activity participation. Justine M., et al (2012) identified the external
and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among
middle-aged and elderly individuals. Results showed that the most common
external barriers among the groups of respondents were not enough time, no one
to exercise with, and lack of facilities. The most internal barriers for
middle-aged respondents were too tired, already active enough and do not know
how to do it and too lazy while those for elderly respondents were too tired,
lack of motivation and already active enough. These factors should be
considered when healthcare are designed and when interventions such as the
provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older
people are being considered. On the other hand, Abbasi,
I. M. (2014) reviewed literature on socio-cultural barriers to attaining
recommended levels of physical activity among females and concluded that
women’s ability to perform physical activity is severely hampered by socio
cultural barriers in many developing countries. Strong gender role puts them in
a position where the expectations of family and society deprive them of
availing the health benefits of physical activity. Childcare, household work,
cultural beliefs, social isolation, and unsafe neighborhood environment are the
leading social and cultural factors that restrict women’s ability to attain
recommended levels of physical activity. Though household chores might include
some types of physical activity, it is difficult to impossible for the majority
of women to achieve recommended levels of health-enhancing physical activity
without appropriate time allocation in their daily lives. An integral approach
is required to reverse the negative effects of socio-cultural factors. Raising
the awareness of the families and societies regarding the well-documented
health effects of physical activity for women is an important step in this
needed reversal.

            In addition, Parra-Medina, D., et al (2012) examined the different factors
that affect the promotion of physical activity among Mexican-origin women in
Texas and South Carolina. Results revealed that Latina participants identified
significant social cultural, economic, and environmental factors contributing
to low levels of leisure-time physical activity. Furthermore, there were
environmental and operational barriers to participating in low-cost activities
such as walking (e.g., location and hours of operation; safety concerns). Lastly,
the lack of role models and low levels of personal knowledge and skills further
contributed to the multiple layers of barriers to regular Leisure-Time Physical
Activity among Mexican-origin women in these communities. Conversely, Bowles (2002) identified the most
common perceived barriers of the participants in varied worksites such
corporations, public health departments, federal sites and middle schools. The
lack of time and lack of self-motivation revealed as the employees’ common
barriers in physical activity participation. The lack of time may attribute to
the busy social schedule, busy home or family schedule and busy work schedule.
In addition, the lack of motivation is reported as a determinant of physical
activity behavior sufficient to achieve health benefit. Furthermore, they emphasized
that worksite provides the potential for physical activity intervention,
because the majority of adults work outside the home. Thus, it is important to
determine what barriers are related to physical activity behaviors in a
worksite setting.

            Participation in regular sessions of physical activity
has shown significant contributions to longevity by offering protection against
chronic diseases and improvements in general wellbeing. If it is accepted that
physical activities can offer these health and wellbeing benefits, and
contribute to the successful ageing then it is important to explore ways of
enhancing adults’ participation. However, despite of research reporting that up
to 95 % of individuals over 65 agree that physical activities is beneficial to
them,   the reported rates and levels of
participation are low (Crombie, et al.,2004). Approximately
50% of adults are widely reported of not regularly participating in enough
levels of physical activity and it is important to better understand what
limits many people from engaging in adequate levels of physical activity and
what motivates those people who are actively participating in the different
activities. Knowing the barriers and increase knowledge will enable the increase
people’s activity levels (Australian Bureau of
Statistics (2007).

         Here in the Philippines, there were agencies that gave great
support and contributed much to the awareness and importance of participation
in various programs about physical activities. The
Department of Health (DOH) emphasized that participating in physical
activity is essential in health and well-being while the Civil Service Commission (CSC) further explained
that the participation in these activities would gain the benefits of regular
physical activity in a positive and safe environment by introducing the Physical
Fitness Program in 2001. Furthermore, a new physical fitness program dubbed as “Great
Filipino Workout” for all government personnel was launched in 2011 after 10
years of success of the first said CSC’s first physical fitness program another
program. Hence, provision for physical fitness exercise during work-hour is allowed.
The CSC authorizes one hour each week for the conduct of health awareness
program and twenty minutes daily for the conduct of wellness or fitness program
(Memorandum Circular No. 38, series 1992 and No. 8,
s. 2011).

            On the other hand, DOH conducted
various programs to ensure the quality health care of the people and to fight
over nutrition such as obesity and overweight. One of the said programs is the “Belly
Gud for Health” (BG Health) in 2012, as an
advocacy strategy for healthy lifestyle; the BGH is intended mainly for those
who have a big waist circumference. Getting the waist circumference (WC) it is a
simple and easy way to measure the central obesity among adults and essential
assessment of risk for non-communicable diseases for heart and stroke. Aside
from BGH, they also organized the dancing type of exercise “Hataw Exercise
Program” for the employees before and after office hours. More specifically, dancing is a type
of exercise and it has huge benefits to the person who participate and practice
it regularly. Certain people think that exercise look boring, but not dancing.
Because dancing is play with music, therefore people whom dancing will-having
fun and at the same time can perform an exercise (Department
of Health, BG Health, 2012). 

            Conversely, Fitness
Trail Program (FTP) of the Philippine Normal University was launched in 1995.
It is a university-based fitness program spearhead by the former Physical
Education Department (now known as the Institute of Physical Education, Health,
Recreation Dance, and Sports (IPEHRDS)). The FTP aimed to help students,
faculty and staff of the university to be more aware with their fitness
condition and to be more physical active. It had different “stations” that
created a physical activity environment within the university quadrangle. In
each station, there are assigned physical activity using improvised equipment
with clear instructions and assessment descriptions to evaluate participants’
performance.  The participants performed
the physical activities of the FTP during class and office breaks, physical
education classes and after school and office works
(R. Edralin, personal communication, March 18, 2017).


In connection of the aforementioned studies
focusing on the need of active participation of the working population in the
various fitness programs, it is in this context that this research will be
conducted to determine the different barriers to physical activity
participation among university adults. Furthermore, it also necessary to
correlate the said barriers to the different personal attributes like age, sex,
nature of work, and physical activity. Though there are substantial literature
on the different barriers to physical activity and their implications
particularly corporations’ settings (Arzu, et. al.,
2006; Moschyny, et. al., 2011; and Hetherington, 2012), there is still a
dearth of studies with the same focus in the Philippine context specifically in
the academe environment. Likewise, there are also needs to develop an
instrument measuring Filipinos’ barriers in physical activity participation and
to conduct empirical studies that will serve as basis for developing programs,
which will promote health and fitness in the university setting. Thus, this
present paper is proposed to evaluate the university personnel’ barriers in
physical activity participation using a contextualized instrument, to relate the
said barriers to the personnel’ demographic profiles and to recommend a health
and fitness promotion program that hopes to influence personnel’ work
efficiency and productivity