Question as it states that pedagogy is an

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Question as it states that pedagogy is an

Question
#1: Why theories in education important? (Discuss
the importance of theories in education.)

Different theories are
expressions of different perspectives of different theorists. The significance
of their differences relies on the unique role and use of each in the educational
system. Educators inculcate lessons to students anchored to various teaching
philosophies and learning theories, but according to Marrison (2014), there is
no one, clear, universal explanation of how we learn and subsequent guidebook
as to how we should teach. Most theorists agree that learning cannot be studied
directly, but its nature can be inferred from changes in behavior (apart from B.F. Skinner who claims that
behavioral changes are learning and therefore no further process need be
inferred) (Marrison, 2014).

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There
are numerous reasons why apply theories in education. According to Marrison
(2014), (1) it helps explain a puzzling or complex issue and to predict its
occurrence in the future. To help explain this process, therefore, theories based on differing
epistemological positions have been developed to explain the procedure. ;
(2) it allows the transfer of information in one setting to that of another. In
different educational settings, multifaceted and inclusive conceptual
explanations provided within the framework of a theory can be applied. Theories
provide different “lenses” through which to look at complex problems
and social concerns, focusing their attention on different aspects of the data
and providing a framework within which to conduct their analysis (Reeves,
Albert, Kuper, & Hodges, 2008). ; and (3) it provides greater opportunities for
improvement by design. Awareness of theories can help us to develop or design
environment to improve potentials for learning through providing information
about the mechanisms underlying learning and performance.

By studying and
understanding learning theories, educators can be more effective in the field.

Question
#2: Provide a comprehensive comparison between pedagogical theory and
pedagogical practice.

Our
professor, Dr. Bert J. Tuga, concisely defined three important terms during our
class discussion in Pedagogical Theory and Practice (PED) 701 last Saturday,
January 20, 2018. According to him, these three terms are: (1) pedagogy is the
science and art of teaching specifically children and it was supported by Child
Australia (2017) as it states that pedagogy is an encompassing term concerned
with what a teacher does to influence learning in others; (2) theory is a
proposition subject to interpretation. It is understood as the result of
academic production, the rationale and justification of practices backed by the
proposals made by different authors or ideal educational situations (Alvarez,
C. A., 2015). It relates to the ways in which children learn or simply, how
learners learn; and (3) practice is the actuality of teaching and learning in
the classroom. Also, it can be understood as the act of teaching in education
establishments, as the possible application of academic creation, or as what
really happens in education (Alvarez, C. A., 2015).

An
effective teacher has a wide-ranging repertoire of different teaching and
learning models, strategies, and techniques and knows how to create the right
conditions for learning. (DfES, 2004). Prior to the issue of effectiveness of
the teachers in the field, pedagogical theory and practice relationship and its
essence must be identified first. Mostly in the Philippine public school set
up, what is written in the curriculum is totally different to what is put into
practice because of the expected and unexpected factors to consider hindering
the full implementation of the education curriculum. The theory remains ideal
while practice faces the reality.

According
to (Beijaard, Meijer, Morine-Dershimer & Tillema, 2005; Hammerness, 2011)
reform of teacher education programs has been a key topic during the past
decade.  Several studies indicate a gap
between theory and practice in teacher education (Kansanen et al., 2000;
Korthagen, 2001; Meijer, 2010). Educational theory is understood as formal
knowledge produced about education, and educational practice as the teaching
activity carried out in education establishments (Álvarez, 2013). Furthermore,
pedagogical practice as the way in introducing students to the application of
pedagogical knowledge in the implementation of the educational work with
children is a form of direct connection between educational theory and practice
and a form of practical preparation of future teachers for independent and high
quality, direct educational work with children and beginning of permanent
professional development. (Obradovi?,
B.P., College of Professional Studies Educators, Gnjilane – Bujanovac, S.,
2013). Many have attempted to overcome the perceived gap between theory
and practice (Westbury et al. 2005). Today, the dominating view is that theory
and practice should be integrated (Leinhardt et al. 1995). Reflection is often
viewed as the proper way to achieve this integration. Therefore, the importance
of reflection and reflection skills in teacher education and teachers’
professional development has been discussed more and more (Korthagen &
Vasalos, 2005; Dewey, 2011). However, it has been found that it is not easy to
reflect on one’s own teaching activities and some support is required in this
process (Beijaard, Meijer, Morine-Dershimer & Tillema, 2005; Shulman &
Shulman, 2004). Several models of professional education stress the continuing
cycle of an interplay between theory, practice, and reflection as the way to
engender changes in students’ attitudes and practices (Hill 2000). Among the
alternatives to the naïve ‘application-of-theory’ model of the first part of
Twentieth Century is the ‘constructivist approach’ (Kroll 2004) that encourages
students to develop grounded theories based on information gathered from the
world of practice (Carlson 1999). Another influential new model of professional
education is the ‘realistic approach’, which directs the ‘theory’ towards the
largest challenges of professional practice (Korthagen & Kessel 1999,
Korthagen 2001).

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