Reliability has posed various challenges to
device scaling from the earliest days of the semiconductor industry. The need
to improve reliability with each successive technology node increases since
failure mechanisms of the most common IC degradation increases with successive technology
nodes. The continuous scaling of device
dimension and the introduction of FinFET technology has led to new reliability
concerns, such as Bias Temperature Instability (BTI), Stress-Induced Leakage
Current (SILC), Self-Heat Effect (SHE) and Time Dependent Junction degradation
(TDJD) 19. These reliability issues become manufacturing, process and design bottleneck
for the advanced technology development because of their stringent process
requirements and the device trade-off 19.