Rigging an interface through coding that allows

Rigging is the most difficult part of the Animation process. Rigging, in general, is creating an interface through coding that allows for animators to animate every part of a character. The interface is called a skeleton and to start work on motion a skeleton must be in place.A character rig is a digital skeleton bound to a 3d model. It is similar to a real skeleton as a rig is made up of multiple joints and bones that all act like handles which animators can use to pose a model (p.2, Slick, Justin What is rigging?)  Facial rigging, also known as FR is another branch of rigging that deals with creating emotions and lip syncing.  FR is also the most difficult branch of rigging. While rigging the bodies of characters use relatively simple coding for all examples, but the way that you rig a face can change based on what medium you’re animating for, like movies or games. When animating for a game a technique similar to conventional rigging is used called “Bone driven animation” where very few to hundreds of bones are placed to allow animators to manipulate the face piece by piece. In order for this technique to work many hours need to be put into each facial expression. Some of the difficulties surrounding facial animation stem from the uncanny valley as stated by Joakim Königsson in his Master’s Thesis in Computing Science Paper titled Facial animation, “The procedure of composing skeletons and binding parts of the model to them can be very tedious, especially when animating faces. The main reason why FA is such a hard work is, humans are extremely sensitive to facial expressions and even slight mistakes will give the direct result of something unnatural about them… it is not difficult to see which characters that are animated and not, especially if one looks at the animated characters face and its movements”(p.31  Königsson Joakim). By extension of the many tasks needed to complete a rig rigging itself is a difficult process that requires close attention to detail.  Once your character is rigged, work needs to be started on the movement of the character.  Animating realistic movement requires programming a set of movement physics called kinematics so that all movements are mathematically accurate. Kinematics are essentially a set of equations that dictate the way a character would move in any direction. However, many times when creating a rig these equations need to be reprogramed by hand so that they have the desired effect. This is where the most time is spent while rigging a character as errors are frequent and unavoidable. This is also why animation studios require animators to have programming experience. Forward kinematics is one of the two basic ways to calculate the joint movement of a skeleton. When using forward kinematics moving one joint can only affect a joint