SECTION consist of any number of people. The

SECTION A

A1.

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(i)                
 A group can consist of any number of people.
The group members share beliefs, principles, and standards about areas of
common interest and they come together to work on common tasks for agreed
purposes and outcomes. People in groups are defined by themselves and by others
as group members, in other words individuals are aware that they are part of a
group.

(ii)              
– They all are in groups.

–         
They have different skills

–         
They agree with each other’s
opinion.

–         
They had an leader in the beginning.

–         
They have worked with the same
companies before and have experience.

(iii)            
These
are the type of work groups created by the organization and have designated
work assignments and rooted tasks. The behavior of such groups is directed
toward achieving organizational goals. The formal groups usually work under a
single supervisor, even though the structure of these groups may vary. For
example, in one form of group such as in production, the members of the work
group depend on each other as well as on the supervisor and in another form of
group, such as sales force, the members of the group work fairly independently and
their common contact may be the district sales manager. Other types of formal
groups include task forces and committees. The task forces are temporary in
nature and are set up for some special projects. The committees can be
permanent, such as a planning committee, a finance committee or a budget
committee and may become an integral part of the organizational structure. A
committee can also be temporary such as a special task force that is set up for
a particular purpose and is then disbanded when the purpose is achieved. For
example, the committee to reelect the President is temporary in nature and is
disbanded after the election.

 

 

(iv)            
this is the first stage of group formation. At this stage,
there is a degree of uncertainty about the group, individual relationships may be
new, and standard and accepted approaches and behaviors are generally unclear.
The second stage of group development is the storming stage. Moreover, this
conflict usually occurs because individual views and approaches need to be
aligned with overall group thinking. Occasionally there are very dominant
individuals who want to make all the decisions, but in a relatively equal group
this is unlikely to be agreed by all its members. The norming stage occurs when
the group finally settles into some sort of agree pattern of behavior and
decisions. This is after the conflict has been resolved from the storming
stage, but sufficiently enough for the group to go forward on a consistent
basis with an agreed plan and approach to their operations. The performing
stage of group-development is when the group is focused on getting the job done.
The final stage of group development relates to temporary teams and groups,
where there is an end to the group and the individuals stop being a group.

 

 

A2.

(i)                
 the transformative
process of taking in information that when internalized and mixed with
what we have experienced changes what we know and builds on what we do.
It’s based on input, process, and reflection. It is what changes us.

(ii)              
– Equal opportunities

–         
Each person is having different
skills

(iii)            
Learning
takes time and patience. It is a process — a journey. A self – directed
learning process is arguably the most powerful model for facilitating and
inspiring individual, group and organizational learning and development.

 

(iv)            
Firstly, Classical conditioning is the association of one event with
another desired event resulting in a behavior. The most well-known experiments
on classical conditioning were conducted by Ivan Pavlov, the Russian
psychologist, who won the Nobel Prize for his experiments on this subject.
Pavlov conducted an experiment on dogs and tried to establish a
Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. He tried to relate the dog’s salivation and
the ringing of the bell. In his experiments, he put some meat in front of dogs.
Secondly, Operant is defined as behavior that produces effect. Operant
conditioning is based on the work of B.F. Skinner who advocated that
individuals emit responses that are rewarded and will not emit responses that
are either not rewarded or are punished. Operant conditioning argues that behavior
is a function of its consequences. Behavior is likely to be repeated if the
consequences are favorable. Behavior is not likely to be repeated if the
consequences are unfavorable. Thus, the relationship between behavior and
consequences is the essence of the operant conditioning. Thirdly, the pioneer
of cognitive learning theory is Edward Tolman. He developed and tested this
theory through controlled experiments. Using rats in his laboratory, he showed
that they learnt to run through a complicated maze towards their goal of food.
It was observed that rats developed expectations at every choice point in the
maze. Thus, they learnt to expect that certain cognitive cues related to the
choice point could ultimately lead to food. The learning took place when the
relationship between the cues and expectancy was strengthened because the cues
led to expected goals. Moreover, Individuals can also learn by observing what
happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as by
direct experiences. Much of what we have learned comes from observing and
imitating models-parents, teachers, peers, superiors, film stars etc. This view
that we can learn through both observation and direct experience has called
social learning theory. The learning process of individuals takes place on the
job as well as prior to the job. In any organization, managers will be
concerned with how they can teach employees to behave in the ways that are most
beneficial to the organization. When an attempt is made by the managers to
mound individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps he is shaping
their behavior.

 

A3.

(i)                
mental
position or emotional feelings about products, services, companies, ideas,
issues, or institutions. Attitudes are shaped by demographics, social values, and personality. In advertising, the desire
is to generate favorable perceptions toward the thing being advertised, and to
promote positive consumer attitudes.

(ii)              
If I were in Jose position each
equal opportunity. And each will have separate skills.

(iii)            

(iv)            
The nature
vs. nurture debate is the scientific, cultural,
and philosophical debate about whether human culture,
behavior, and personality are
caused primarily by nature or nurture. Nature is often defined in this debate
as genetic or hormone-based behaviors, while nurture is most commonly defined
as environment and experience.

(v)              
1. Psychologist
Abraham Maslow developed this theory. It places human needs into five
categories ranging from basic survival needs like food and shelter to the need
for self-actualization. According to Maslow, once one need is satisfied, an
individual seeks to achieve the next level. When applied to work, the theory
implies that you the employer must understand the current need level of each
employee to know what will motivate them. A new hire who has been unemployed
for an extended time will likely be motivated by the need for basic survival.
On the other hand, a worker concerned with career advancement may be looking to
achieve self-actualization, so assigning higher-level tasks may be in order.

2. This traditional motivational theory,
attributed to philosopher Jeremy Bentham, dates back to around 1800 during the
Industrial Revolution. It breaks down motivation into two basic components:
incentives and fear. Some workers are motivated by the desire to attain
additional compensation, a yearning to achieve status and power by “moving
up the ladder,” or the need for praise. But some workers act out of fear:
the fear of losing a job, being reprimanded by a supervisor or not being able
to adequately perform an assignment.

3. Also known as the Two Factory theory,
Frederick Herzberg developed this in 1959. It postulates that different factors
in the work environment result in either satisfaction or dissatisfaction;
Herzberg referred to these as “hygiene” factors. Factors that lead to
satisfaction include achievement, recognition and advancement, while those causing
dissatisfaction include work conditions, salary and peer relationships. In
general, the theory puts forth that supervisors must be able to effectively
manage factors leading to satisfaction and dissatisfaction to successfully
motivate employees. Management must look for ways to provide job enrichment for
workers.

 

 

A4.  Mohamed nasheed. He was born in 17th
may 1967, Male’, Maldives. Now he is 50 years. His wife name is Laila Ali
Abdhulla. His children’s names are Mira Laila Nasheed and Zaya Laila Nasheed. He
is the founder of Maldives democratic party. He is famous as the 4th
president of the Maldives. He studied in Liverpool
John Moores University. Mohamed Nasheed is a Maldivian politician and activist.
He is former President of the Maldives. Popularly addressed as the ‘Mandela of
the Maldives’ for his advocacy of human rights and democratic governance, he
became the first democratically elected president in Maldivian history. He
started his career as a political journalist and became an iconic personality
by playing an important role in the removal of the authoritarian rule of
Maumoon Gayoom. Having faced police detention and physical torture for his
political ideology, he went on to become the Amnesty International “Prisoner of
Conscience” thereby making room for a more liberalized and non-violent
political culture in Maldives. He has been honored with various awards for his
environmental consciousness and for exposing the vulnerability of the nations
to the hazards of carbon emissions. His never-ending efforts directed at
fighting the adversities of climate change got him the title of ‘Hero of the
Environment’ by the Time Magazine. Although forced to resign after 2.5 years of
rule for reasons still debatable, he has played a remarkable role in the
political arena of Maldives.

In
conclusion, He is the best leader I’ve known.