SNC2D Climate Change Culminating Activity Friday, January 19, 2018Group MembersZaid AlnemerTomi Paghubasan Ava Yassin Period 1Rowed Yakhni Ms.YounesWhat Are Fossil Fuels?Fossil fuels are as the name suggests are derivatives of plant and animals that are millions of years old. There are 3 types of fossil fuels: Coal, Oil/Petroleum, and Natural Gas. Approximately 86% of the world’s energy is generated by fossil fuels. But there are many advantages to fossil fuels. For one, they are non-renewable, which means once we use them up we won’t they’re gone for good and we won’t be able to use them for a long time. Fossil fuels are depleting at a fast rate and are projected to run within as little as a 100 years. Fossil fuels also cause several environmental hazards. They release carbon dioxide when they are burnt and carbon dioxide is one of the primary gases responsible for global warming. Fossil fuels also release nitrogen oxides such as nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds or hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide when burnt. The burning of fossil fuels has a severe effect on planet earth and is one of the main causes of global warming and the greenhouse effect. Why Are Fossil Fuels Problematic?Over 35 Billion tons of carbon dioxide are released in the air every year, and the biggest contributor to our insane carbon dioxide emissions is the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to climate change, global warming, and the greenhouse effect, so these extremely high annual carbon dioxide emissions are just destroying our planet. We need to cut down on the burning of fossil fuels so that the fossil fuels and our planet will last longer. We need to start using other methods of energy production.What Is Uranium Energy?Uranium is a heavy silver metal which is being used as a prevalent source of nuclear energy for over 60 years. Uranium is found in 1 in 250,000 – 500,000 rocks and is an abundant resource in the Earth. Unextractable traces of Uranium can be found everywhere in rivers, oceans, food, and even humans. Since Uranium is radioactive and is located everywhere it contributes to the background radiation of the Earth. The energy from Uranium is extracted at nuclear power plants by a process called milling which involves crushing the uranium rock into a very fine powder and combining it with water to create a semi-fluid substance. This substance is then added to an alkaline solution or sulfuric acid which precipitates over 95% of the uranium which is sent to another plant to refine it and turn it into power. Uranium can also be extracted directly from the extraction site by pumping a solution of water and chemicals directly into the Earth and precipitating the uranium directly from the Earth.Why Is Uranium EnergyBetter Than Fossil Fuels?Uranium energy is more cost effective than most fossil fuels, per one-kilowatt hour it’s 80 cents less expensive than natural gas, $1.80 less than oil, and only 4 cents more expensive than coal.Uranium is very abundant in the Earth crust and can be reprocessed to extract more energy whereas fossil fuels are non-renewableUranium energy doesn’t release any harmful greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide or methane5 fuel pellets of Uranium is energy equivalent to 149 gallons of oil, 1780 pounds of coal, and 17,000 cubic feet of natural gasExtracting and Refining Uranium is safer than coal with fewer deaths per year relating to retrieving and processing the UraniumUranium waste can be controlled with concrete pits making them unable to cause harm to any living organisms unless in close proximityWhat is HydroElectric Energy?Hydroelectric Energy is energy and electricity collected from water from sources like Dams, Rivers, Waterfalls, etc. It supplies Canada with a vast amount of electricity, specifically 63.1% of its energy output. Hydroelectric energy uses a generator named a “Hydroelectric power-generating unit”. Hydroelectricity is generated by the force of falling water. The water is held behind a dam, forming an artificial lake, or in other words a reservoir. The force of the water being released from the reservoir allows the dam to spin blades of a giant turbine. As the turbine spins, it conducts energy which is transferred into electricity. After passing through the turbine, the water will move to the other side of the dam into the river. Why Is Hydroelectric Energy Better Than Fossil Fuels?Hydroelectric Energy uses cleaner sources and has an unbelievable amount of water to use.Due to Canada’s location we have access to the most lakes in the entire world. Using Hydroelectric energy in Canada would not only be productive but there are more opportunities for us to do so.Hydroelectric Energy allows countries to produce energy as an independent country, not needing to have international disputes with different countries on trade matters and territory problems.The energy generated from the Hydroelectric Generators relies on the water cycle, which is driven by the sun. This means that it is a renewable power source, and can be more reliable than fossil fuels that continuously dispose of themselves as we use them.Most Hydropower facilities can go from zero power, to maximum output. This is because Hydropower plants can directly transfer electricity and energy to a power grid instantly, so in a case of a power outage Hydroelectric facilities would start up power grids instantly.