Choudhury to all actions insid? th? company. According

(2014) stat?d that th? history of Kaiz?n b?gins aft?r World War II wh?n Toyota first impl?m?nt?d
quality circl?s in its production proc?ss. This was influ?nc?d in part by Am?rican
busin?ss and quality manag?m?nt t?ach?rs who visit?d th? country. This r?volutionary conc?pt b?cam?
v?ry popular in Japan in th? 1950s. Th? t?rm Kaiz?n actually b?cam?
famous around th? world through th? works of Masaaki Imai.


Kaiz?n in industry is about Continuous
Improv?m?nt (CI) in ?v?ry rol? insid? th? company which involv?s all ?mploy??s in
diff?r?nt positions from th? Chi?f ?x?cutiv? Offic?r to th? p?rsonn?l in ass?mbly
lin?. Kaiz?n is also r?l?vant to all actions insid? th? company.


According to Mika
(2006), Kaiz?n has b??n impl?m?nt?d in just about ?v?ry country that manufactur?s
throughout th? world. Not d?p?nd?nt on th? languag? or ?ducation l?v?l of th? workforc?, it
has b??n mast?r?d by company pr?sid?nts as w?ll as ?ntry-l?v?l work?rs,

Th?r? ar? lots of strong compani?s which adopt th?
philosophy of Continuous Improv?m?nt which is originat?d from Kaiz?n, on? of
thos? company is Trumpf. Trumpf is giant play?r in
th? manufacturing industry which produc?s sh??t m?tal proc?ssing ?quipm?nt, industrial las?rs, ?l?ctronics, and m?dical ?quipm?nt
for d?liv?ry to mark?ts throughout th?


?valuat? Trumpf’s l?an production syst?m “Synchro” as
an instrum?nt of incr?m?ntal innovation manag?m?nt.



Trumpf’s Synchronous Production


TRUMPF has d?v?lop?d its own synchronous production
syst?m in 1998 which is call?d Synchronous Production or Synchro. It involv?s a
syst?m of various m?thods for syst?matically improving production proc?ss?s and
simultan?ously improving th? quality of th? products. Trumpf’s id?a of Synchro brings
th? knowl?dg? of l?an production ov?r into th?ir machin? manufacturing busin?ss.


G?rybadz? ?t al., (2010) stat?d that th? c?ntral id?a
of l?an manag?m?nt is th? ?limination of wast?. This is bas?d on th? r?cognition
that not ?v?rything that ?mploy??s do during a typical workday adds valu?.
SYNCHRO ?mploys thr?? principl?s to ?liminat? wastag?:


• Th? larg?st sourc? of wast? is ov?rproduction. For this r?ason,
production tak?s plac?s ?xclusiv?ly in r?spons?
to ord?rs plac?d.

• This is only possibl? if p?rf?ct quality is achi?v?d at all tim?s
as a r?sult of s?cur? proc?ss?s.

• Th? basis for any improv?m?nt is th? knowl?dg? and cr?ativity of
all ?mploy??s, which is why th?y ar? involv?d
at all stag?s.




2.According to Trumpf’s
company profil?, digital conn?ctivity and smart factory solutions play a larg? rol? in Trumpf’s product d?v?lopm?nt.
How do?s Trumpf us? op?n innovation to comp?t? in th?s? fast
changing mark?ts? What ?ls? can b? don? to improv? Trump’s way to b? innovativ?? List pot?ntial focus points
and s?l?ct your top 3. ?xplain your s?l?ction crit?ria. (Pl?as? us?
additional information about Trumpf b?yond th? cas? study for this qu?stion)







Which ?l?m?nts of a good innovation cultur?/organization can you id?ntify at

Would you hav? furth?r r?comm?ndations?








1. A
diff?r?nt s?t of ?y?s. An

inquisitiv?, outspok?n

not from th? ar?a cov?r?d
by th?

workshop; this m?mb?r
can s??

things that may oth?rwis?
b? ov?rlook?d

and is a sourc? of fr?sh


Manufacturing or product

Th? rol? of th? ?ngin??r

is critical b?caus?
typically 80

p?rc?nt of a product’s
cost is “cast

in ston?” during th? d?sign

3. Som?on?
curr?ntly assign?d

to th?
proc?ss. This h?lps to cr?at?

own?rship for th? chang?s

r?sponsibility for impl?m?ntation.

is also ?ff?ctiv? to hav?

from upstr?am and
downstr?am of

th? s?l?ct?d ar?a.

Maint?nanc? or faciliti?s.

Many workshops involv?

?quipm?nt and

5. Mat?rials

This rol? is important
in addr?ssing

mat?rial control and sch?duling


Influ?ntial informal l?ad?rs.

7. Saf?ty
coordinator. Th?

t?am may n??d
consultation on th?

saf?ty implications of

improv?m?nt r?comm?ndations.

Suppli?rs. Suppli?rs s?rv? as

a diff?r?nt s?t of ?y?s
and can off?r

insight into solutions
outsid? of th?

t?am’s influ?nc?.

9. Ad
hoc m?mb?rs. Som?tim?s

a t?mporary m?mb?r may b?

n??d?d to provid? ?xp?rt
input about

a product, s?rvic?, or

Using th? standard work

s?l?ction proc?ss ?nsur?s
that ?ach

workshop has th? b?st
balanc? of

p?opl? and skills to cr?at? a b?tt?r


St?fan Lind?gaard (2010) with his book Th? N?w Op?n
Innovation R?volution stat?d that 10 ?ss?ntial ?l?m?nts of an op?n innovation
cultur? ar?:

P?opl? who can manag? r?lationships
with custom?rs and

partn?rs. This r?quir?s agil? and fl?xibl?
p?opl? who hav?

th? soft skills of ?motional int?llig?nc?
— fundam?ntal social

skills such as s?lf – awar?n?ss, s?lf
– fulfillm?nt, and ?mpathy — in

to traditional int?llig?nc? skills.

Willingn?ss to acc?pt that not all th?
smart p?opl? work in

your d?partm?nt or ?v?n for your company,
and a corr?sponding

willingn?ss to find and work with
smart p?opl? both

insid? and outsid? th? company.


Willingn?ss to h?lp ?mploy??s build th?
knowl?dg? and

und?rstanding of how an id?a or t?chnology
b?com?s a profitabl?

busin?ss, p?rhaps by d?v?loping a job
– rotation program

could ?v?n ?ngag? partn?rs and custom?rs.

Und?rstanding that failur?s r?pr?s?nt
opportuniti?s to l?arn,

and a willingn?ss to r?ward thos? ?fforts
and that way of l?arning. Failur? is a fact of lif? for compani?s that pursu? innovation
s?riously, and a l?ad?r ‘ s r?spons? has a hug? ?ff?ct

company cultur? and, th?r?for?, on futur? proj?cts.





Dismissing NIH (Not Inv?nt?d H?r?). If
w? mak? th? b?st

us? of int?rnal and ?xt?rnal id?as, w?
will win. W? don ‘ t n??d

to own ?v?rything ours?lv?s and k??p
it und?r tight wraps.

W? should profit from oth?rs ‘ us? of
our innovation proc?ss,

and w? should buy oth?rs ‘ int?ll?ctual
prop?rty wh?n?v?r it

our own busin?ss mod?l.


Willingn?ss to striv? for balanc? b?tw??n
int?rnal and ?xt?rnal

R & D. ?xt?rnal R & D can cr?at?
significant valu?; int?rnal R & D

is n??d?d
to claim som? portion of that valu?.

Willingn?ss to b? a risk tak?r rath?r
than b?ing risk av?rs?,

using common s?ns? to balanc? th? risk l?v?l.

Acc?pting that op?n innovation do?s
rais? int?ll?ctual prop?rty

issu?s. Your l?gal t?am can ?ith?r
choos? to play off?ns?

or d?f?ns?. Hop?fully, th?y ‘ ll adopt
a constructiv? approach

that supports progr?ss toward th?
company ‘ s busin?ss d?v?lopm?nt


Und?rstanding that op?n innovation r?quir?s
op?n communication.

Work around th? confid?ntiality and

rights issu?s to cr?at? an ?nvironm?nt built on trust.

Not n??ding to always b? first.
Building a b?tt?r busin?ss

is b?tt?r than g?tting to mark?t first.







Pr?mium compani?s ar?
good ?xampl?s for op?n innovation: Th?y aim at r?ducing

th? cost and duration of
th?ir innovation proj?cts by ?ngaging in various forms

of coop?ration and partn?ring
to gain acc?ss to know-how and innovation id?as

(Ch?sbrough, Vanhav?rb?k?,
& W?st, 2006).


1: Op?n Innovation Mod?l; Sourc?: Ch?sbrough, Vanhav?rb?k?, & W?st (2006) pag? 3




Figur? 1 which is cr?at?d by Ch?sbrough, Vanhav?rb?k?, and W?st (2006)   shows a r?pr?s?ntation of an Op?n Innovation
mod?l. With this mod?l, company’s proj?cts
can b? launch?d from ?ith?r int?rnal or ?xt?rnal sourc? of t?chnology. N?w t?chnology can ?nt?r into th? proc?ss at
various diff?r?nt stag?s, and also th? proj?cts can b? launch?d to th? mark?t
in many ways as w?ll in
addition to going to mark?t through th? company’s
own mark?ting and sal?s chann?ls.


G?rybadz? ?t al., (2010) stat?d that, partn?rs ar? typically suppli?rs
with whom th?y shar? major d?v?lopm?nt proj?cts, contract r?s?arch
or ?ngin??ring firms and sp?cializ?d compani?s in n?ighboring
s?ctors. Th? succ?ss of op?n innovation
arrang?m?nts d?p?nds gr?atly on th? partn?rs’r?adin?ss to ?quitably shar? th? b?n?fits
of th?ir coop?ration. Pr?mium compani?s willingly
?ngag? in contractual agr??m?nts and coop?rativ? mod?s to saf?guard th? succ?ss of joint innovation proj?ct


Pr?mium compani?s ?njoy
a corporat? cultur? which supports innovativ? thinking, t?am b?havior and fl?xibility of th?ir p?opl?.
This is what can b? call?d an innovation cultur?.
Th?y hav? brought it about by g?tting th?ir p?opl? to und?rstand and support th? obj?ctiv?s of th? company’s innovation
strat?gy, by having th?m participat? in th?
d?cisions for innovation proj?cts and assum? r?sponsibility for th? succ?ss of th?s? proj?cts, by providing th? fram?work
for int?rnal coop?ration and ?ff?ctiv? coordination,
by cr?ating transpar?ncy of th? innovation proc?ss and by inc?ntivizing commitm?nt. Top manag?m?nt of pr?mium
compani?s is s??n to communicat? op?nly
and to b?hav? in a coop?rativ? and participativ? mann?r.

















Th? application of Continuous Improv?m?nt which is
appli?d by Trumpf ?xplains that kaiz?n philosophy is v?ry ?ff?ctiv? if it is w?ll


Th? t?am form?d by Trumpf us?d th? kaiz?n philosophy
and acknowl?dg?d that th?y would b?com? mor? ?ffici?nt and productiv? 

1. such as: 1) NRIC/ FIN number



1.   Patient Assessment


1.1 Patient Information

Colin is a Chief Financial Officer in his mid 40s who works long hours in a multinational company.

Lately, he found it difficult to follow board meetings and multi speaker teleconferences. The ability to hear and communicate well is very important to his career and he would like to find the best solution to his problem.

However, Colin is very self-conscious and does not want to give others the impression that he is less capable by wearing hearing aids.

1.2 Remarks

Some identification information regarding the patient is missing, such as:

1)    NRIC/ FIN number

2)    Name of company


These background information regarding hearing are also not know:

1)    A more specific date of hearing loss experienced

2)    The ear that experienced hearing loss

3)    Gradualness/ suddenness of hearing loss

4)    Any visit to a doctor/ operation done regarding his ear beforehand

5)    Sensitivity to loud sound

6)    Genetic information

7)    Exposure to excessive noise at work or if loud music is listened frequently

8)    Numbness on face

9)    Episodes of dizziness

10) Wellness during hearing test


It is known that certain background information can be assumed from patient information however to ensure an accurate diagnosis and hearing treatment is given, it is best to inquire these questions.


Furthermore, these important noise exposure information are also not known (if Colin is exposed to excessive noise):

1)      Duration of noise exposure in years

2)      Usage of hearing protectors when exposed to excessive noise

3)      Had counselling on usage of hearing protectors


Due to the lack of these information, an accurate in-depth diagnosis and treatment cannot be given even if hearing loss is evident in hearing test.

As hearing loss is suspected, intensity of 70dB is used to start the presentation.





2.   Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) Results


2.1 Audiogram (Catalina)








   Fig 1. BC testing for frequency with AC threshold                      Fig 2. BC masking on Right ear

Results: Colin has mild to moderately severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss on the left ear and Moderate to Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss on the right ear.

2.2 Audiogram (Rooney)















Result: Mr Colin is suffering from mild conductive hearing loss on his right ear at frequencies 250 Hz and 500 Hz. He also has moderate severe hearing loss at frequencies 3kHz, 4kHz and 8kHz on his left ear.

2.3 Audiogram (Wen Xin)








 Fig 6. Audiogram before conducting AC Mask                Fig 7. Audiogram after conducting AC Mask

Result:  Mild to moderately-severe SNHL at high frequencies on the left ear and mild to severe downward sloping SNHL from low to high frequencies on the right ear.


2.4 Audiogram (Darren)




Result: Mild to moderate-severe SNHL at high frequencies for the left ear. Gradual decline mild to moderate-severe SNHL for the right ear.






3.   Speech Frequencies










According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1, the frequency of speech sound ranges from 250Hz to 6000Hz. The vowel sounds occupy the low frequency range of 250Hz to 1000Hz, while the consonant sounds have higher frequencies, ranging from 1500Hz to 6000Hz.  It is also stated that the consonant sounds help listeners to perceive speech better as compared to vowel sounds 1. It is shown in the new Count-The-Dot method the calculation of Articulation Index (AI) 2, the number of dots occupying the vowel region are lesser (37 dots) than the consonant region (52 dots).










Fig 12. Count-The-Dot audiogram
Obtained from:

















Furthermore frequencies ranging from 2000Hz to 3000Hz are more important in speech understanding due to higher classes of phonemic information3.

4.   Analysis of Colin’s Audiogram (Overall)












Fig 14. Colin’s audiogram with the “Speech Banana” added5

According to Colin’s audiogram, as shown in the Fig14, Colin is unable to hear speech sounds ranging from 2000Hz to 8000Hz on the right ear and 3000Hz to 8000Hz on the left ear unaided. These are in consonant components in speech sound frequency range.













Figure 15. Unaided Colin’s audiogram with Mueller-Killion Count-The-Dots audiogram form2














Using the AI value, an approximate 2% of sentences loss, 92% intelligence in 250 Single Syllable MRT Rhyming Words and 65% of 1000 Single Syllable Words PBs respectively is obtained. The AI values also shows that Colin shows poorer performance in conversational speech 3, as he is not able to interpret the speech information transmitted fully. Thus, Colin is able to hear speeches, but he is not able to comprehend them fully because the whole frequency range is not heard properly. This is the reason that caused him to be unable to follow at board meetings and multi speaker teleconferences well. The situation will worsen in the noisy environment as noise will mask the low frequency speech sounds.

5. Recommendations

5.1 Hearing Aids

We are able to recommend Colin with two different type of Hearing aids.

Fig 17. ITC (In the Canal)

The In the Canal (ITC) fits in the ear canal partly, it comes with a volume control and program button, thus the inability to completely fit in the canal.

The ITC is suitable for Colin as it is suitable for users with moderate to severe hearing loss.


Since Colin is self- conscious this ITC is barely visible and is comfortable because it sits deep in the ear canal.

The Behind the Ear (BTE) is cased in a plastic cover that will rest behind Colin’s ear, a clear plastic acoustic tube will then directly amplify sound into an earbud that is fitted inside the ear canal. The clear plastic acoustic tube is small and will be barely visible.


It is suitable for Colin as he has moderate to severe hearing loss. Also, it is comfortable as it prevents a plugged up feeling in ear canal


5.2 Lip Reading or Speech Reading


We also recommend Colin to learn lip reading or speech reading because it is useful for following conversational speech.


n INDIANSNative Americans used to be more commonly

n the 1840s the Great Plains were sparsely inhabited by the Plains Indians. The Indians depended upon huge herds of buffalo that roamed the grasslands. To the few non-Indians who travelled across them, the Great Plains was seen as a useless desert.By 1895 the Great Plains were populated by thousands of homesteaders and ranchers. The once-empty grasslands were dotted with towns and cities and crossed by railroads. Those Plains Indians who still survived were confined to reservations and the buffalo had all been slaughtered. TOPIC 1 –THE PLAINS INDIANSNative Americans used to be more commonly known as American Indians or the Plains Indians. This is because when Columbus thought he’d reached Indian when he first got to America in 1492. He soon realised he hadn’t, but called the people Indians anyway. The Plains Indians weren’t a single group with a single culture –there were many different tribes. Each family lived in a home called a tipiThe tipi was the home of each Indian family. It was made from buffalo skins sewn together and supported by a circular frame of wooden poles. It was the responsibility of the women. They made it, owned it, put it up and moved it. It could be taken down and packed for transport in ten minutes. This made it an ideal home for people who were frequently on the move. In the summer the tipi bottom could be rolled up to let air in. In winter it could be banked with earth to keep the tipi warm. The conical shape of the tipi made it strong enough to resist the strong winds on the Great Plains. They relied on the buffalo?Plains Indians were nomadic hunter gatherers –they followed the buffalo around the Plains. Theyprovided the necessities of life:omeatoskins for wool, clothing, shoes, tipisosinews for thread, ropes, bowstringsobones for implementsodung for fuelThe horse increased the tribes’ power and efficiency?The lives of the Native Americans were transformed by the horse.?It became much easier to hunt, and to transport stored food and other belongingsacross the Great Plains.

Basic (Wright, 2004) as well as The

Basic hygiene –related
diseases, particularly waterborne conditions continue to kill millions of
people every year, in sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the affected people are
children.  Studies conducted in Douala,
Cameroon suggest that lack of access to potable water and absence of sanitation
are the likely culprits (Ako et al. 2009). With better education in hygiene and
supply of clean water, and it is possible to control disease burden. Indeed, in
systematic reviews published by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and
Hygiene (Wright, 2004) as
well as The Lancet (Fewtrell
, 2005), clean water and hygiene intervention have both clearly proven to
reduce waterborne illnesses. Unfortunately, easy access to clean water remains
a significant challenge in most rural areas in Cameroon. One of those areas is
Bonepoupa, a small village that is about 22 miles (35 km) from Douala, the
largest city of Cameroon. Of note, Douala is also the economic capital of
Cameroon and the entire CEMAC region that includes countries like the
Congos,  Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and
the Central African republic.


Bad water is a silent killer. It kills more than weapons of mass
destruction, though silently.
“Camerounaise des Eaux”, the only water authority in the country is
unable to provide services to many rural areas, including Bonepoupa.
Access to water in this community of over 500 people is through hand-dug
wells and a couple of privately owned, hand operated water wells. Most
people use the nearest stream for bathing, cocking, and to wash clothes.
There are no sanitations with running water. 
Given that hand-dug wells
are shallow and close to latrines, they pose a serious sanitary risk because of possible
fecal contamination (Bain, 2014).
Hand-dug wells go dry during period of drought when the water table

Solution: Build a deep
drilled well with submersible electric pump


Provide for safe drinking water for domestic and livestock uses for the people of Bonepoupa

Encourage the participation
of the local community in understanding the impacts of clean water and better sanitation.

The end result of the project will
be a deep drilled well with submersible electric pump given currently available
hydrogeological data of the land.  


Key Stakeholders

Beneficiary: The local community


Project manager: Local,
traditional authorities


and Evaluation
Updates on the advancement of
the project will be communicated electronically (emails with photos, video
calls, etc.).  

HR case: 1. Enrollment: Enrollment is a

HR chart

The initial strength of HR department is to direct office works as well as oversee representatives by planning, actualize, and estimating HR arrangements, criterion, and projects. Essentially, it includes practical exercises including enlisting qualified representatives, building up remuneration structure, preparing staffs, tending to worker relations matters, and keeping up task surroundings wellbeing.

Strength Units:

·         Recruitment

·         Compensation and benefits

·         Staff relations

·         Leading

·         Creativeness

·         Labor safety

 Below HR formal diagram case:


1.      Enrollment:

Enrollment is a crucial errand for HR division since it figures out what sort of individuals will work for the institution– whether they have the correct data and strengths, and whether they are appropriate for the position or not. To achieve this mission, they HR division need to create and execute quality enrollment methodologies to guarantee that enlistment meets all governmental policy regarding minorities in society duties.

2.      Pay and Benefits:

HR director needs to set up vital pay designs, guaranteeing salary and reward programs are administrated similarly all through the workforce. They have to furnish representatives with advantage choices, including medical coverage, retirement arranging, disaster protection, and so forth. In addition, they are in charge of approving pay changes, position changing a race.



3.      Worker Relations

HR office is likewise in charge of researching and illuminating representative dissensions, clashes, and concerns. Numerous conceivable issues may emerge in an organization. For instance, a worker isn’t happy with his execution evaluation result and looks for correction. On the off chance that this sort of condition happens, the HR office needs to look into on this issue, and take care of the issue by consulting with his prevalent.

4.      Preparing and Development

Through powerful preparing, representatives could upgrade their insight, aptitudes and work capacities, with the goal that they can enhance their activity execution. Human asset office lead needs an investigation to choose what preparing is important to enhance execution and efficiency.

5.      Workforce Safety

HR office needs to guarantee each staff working in a sheltered situation. It’s their commitment to explore and create security arrangements for the organization that is an inconsistency with state and government laws and control. They have to recognize risky conditions and clarify see on potential hazardous issues, for example, unsafe gear, synthetic medications, radioactive substances, and so forth.

Arranging a New Scheme| Simple Flowchart

A standout amongst the extreme sequent work on flowcharts is in delineating another undertaking. Experts and programmers regularly employ flowcharts, for such reason, unless, other may locate out their value as well. Those are independently profitable such the scheme would contain a series of procedure such includes choices. Here’s an initial flowchart which demonstrates this:





















Reporting a Process | Swimlane Flowchart


Organizations regularly have inward or outside necessities for process documentation. Flowcharts are an amazing instrument for these reasons. From gauges answering to conforming to government directions, utilizing a flowchart can be safely more efficient than a composed story.

Here are a few issues of outer weights that require procedure documentation:

·                     BPM Automation: Documenting forms is an essential for robotized BPM (Business Process Management).

·                     ERP: Documenting forms is required as a component of an Enterprise Resource Planning usage.

·                     Company Sale: Documenting forms is an imperative arrangement when situating an organization for a possible deal.

·                     Compliance: Various enactment and managerial bodies, like to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Joint Commission, for instance, frequently require broad process documentation.

·                     Customers: Some clients may require ISO or other quality accreditations as an essential for working together.

There may likewise be inward purposes behind utilizing flowcharts to record forms.

·                     Flexibility: Both new and existing workers can promptly take in the correct method to play out any employment.

·                     Quality: If everybody on the group plays out an occupation, similarly, each time, the result is unsurprising and reliable.

·                     Visibility: Management can see precisely how each occupation is intended to be performed.

·                     Process Improvement: You can’t enhance the way your association completes its work unless you know how it’s being done at this point.

A fundamental flowchart will regularly do the trick for process documentation. Notwithstanding, in situations where forms have different stages, work crosswise over divisions, or have other isolated classes a Swimlane flowchart might be the better decision. It outwardly isolates these classes, as appeared in the chart underneath.






















Displaying a Business Operation | EPC Diagram


Business methods might cover an extensive variety of pursuits. They may be a straightforward arrangement of errands or a mind-boggling exhibit of them that cover various conceivable circumstances. Demonstrating these procedures is done to guarantee a reliable, unsurprising result. Reporting or showing a business purchase is employing an occasion-driven operation chain (EPC) summary. An essential illustration appears here:

The EPC chart is an obvious order of flowchart composed particularly for this cause. It holds a remarkable library of photos not found in traditional flowcharts.

Data Flow Diagram

Data flow scheme is a specified forms concerning giving up concord decrease among framing scientists also regular customers. They are specific flowcharts whose gather important quantities of facts into a moderate pair of images and connectors.

Ramses then in the battle of The

Ramses II’s battle success made him a lasting impact on Egypt’s history.There were three battles which Ramses led and succeed, there was The battle of Kadesh, Later Syria Campaigns, and The Sherden Sea Pirates. In the battle of Kadesh Ramses outstanding battle skills lead Egypt to victory and created the world’s first peace treaty. In Syria Ramses battle strategies for fighting to get Egypt tons of property back in Syria, then in the battle of The Sherden Sea Pirates Ramses great planning during the battle led them to defeat the Sherdens then with their help defeat other groups of people. Ramses II had the most lasting impact on Egypt because of his battle success and without it, Egypt would have never been the same. Ramses outstanding battle skills lead Egypt to victory and created the world’s first peace treaty. Ramses alone got to work and started to run the Hittites out of the camp. Then Ramses was sent a miracle as Egyptian reinforcements came in to help finish off the Hittites (“Ramses II The Greatest Leader Of All-time?”). In this part of the battle, the Hittites surprised attacked and left leaving Ramses behind. He decided to step up and take them on and was able to bring them out of the camp. As the Hittites started to lose by luck, Egyptian reinforcements came in and they helped finish off the Hittites. This battle was one of his most famous as he wrote many poems and built many monuments of himself. With Egypt’s lead gone, the Hittite chariots were slow-moving and clumsy and the lighter Egyptian vehicles outdid them. Ramses, smart and outwitted, managed to win. Egyptians and Hittites claimed Kadesh as an amazing, and Ramses had his temples covered with victory reliefs. The battle was proved to be nothing. This was because fifteen years later, the two sides went back to Kadesh to agree to a negotiation the first example in history (“Battle Of Kadesh”). Ramses had been outnumbered by the Hittites, but the Hittites chariots were not as good as the Egyptians. The Hittites had fewer chariots than the Egyptians, so they easily outdid them. Having so many chariots they managed to defeat the Hittites. Then fifteen years later they met back at Kadesh and signed the world’s first peace treaty. Again Ramses saved the day by having so many Chariots. Which were stronger than the Hittites even though they were at a disadvantage. Ramses shined during the battle of Kadesh. He may have screwed up in some parts, but he redeemed himself in parts of the battle where Egypt was at a disadvantage.  Ramses fought off the Hittites out of Egypt’s camp alone and when Egyptian reinforcements came in they knocked off the Hittites. Ramses stepped up after beginning to lose to the Hittites and brought them to victory. Then when he led Egypt into a huge trap they won by having stronger and more chariots. Also fifteen years later leading to the world’s first peace treaty. Ramses great planning during the battle of the Sherden Sea Pirates led them to defeat the Sherdens then with their help defeat other groups of people.  Ramesses put troops and ships at main points along the coast and allowed the pirates to attack their bait before skillfully catching them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all in a single action (“Ramses II – Campaigns and Battles – Battle Against Sherden Sea Pirates”). During this battle, Ramses used his self-intelligence and came up with a master plan to capture the Sea Pirates. He posted people in key areas and let the pirates come in easy. Then he started a full-blown attack which captured them in a single action. Ramses captured them because they were causing havoc along Egyptians Mediterranean coast. His smart battle plan kept the pirates off of their coast. Most likely there was a battle somewhere near the top of the Nile, as shortly afterwards many Sherden are seen in the Pharaoh’s body-guard where they are very noticeable by their horned helmets with a ball from the middle, their circular shields, and the great Naue II swords with which they have many inscriptions of the Battle of Kadesh. In that sea battle, together with the Shardana, the pharaoh also defeated the Lukka and the Šqrsšw peoples (“Ramses II – Campaigns and Battles – Battle Against Sherden Sea Pirates”). After an easy win over the Sea Pirates, he turned them into good use. He turned them into Egyptian fighters to help him out. As well as using them with the Egyptians, he was able to conquer the Lukka and the Šqrsšw peoples. Using his battle skills he turned the Shardanas (Sherden Sea Pirates) into fighters for the Egyptians helping him conquer the two other groups of people. This battle was very important for Egypt as it stopped Havok across the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Ramses was very smart during this battle leading to an easy victory. He came up with a master plan to defeat the Sherdanas easily. He lured them in with bait and full on attacked them leading to a victory. Then he turned them into Egyptian soldiers, which helped defeat the Lukka and Šqrsšw peoples. The only reason Egypt did so well was because of Ramses brainpower. Ramses battle planning against the Hittites got Egypt tons of property back in Syria.   When Ramses when on his campaign, he split up into two armies. One army was run by his son, Amun-her-khepeshef, and it ran warriors of the Šhasu tribes across the Negev as far as the Dead Sea, then taking over Edom-Seir. It then went on to take Moab. The other army, run by Ramesses, attacked Jerusalem and Jericho. After Ramses entered Moab, where he rejoined his son. The reunited army then captured on Hesbon, Damascus, on to Kumidi, and finally, recaptured Upi getting back Egypt’s former sphere of influence (“Ramses II-Wikipedia”). Ramses smart plan split the armies into two groups so they could conquer twice as much. Having that advantage they moved to different areas and captured them. They each captured two, then they reunited after Ramses entered Moab. Together they captured 4 more regaining most of Egypt’s territory back. Without Ramses making the plans for success they would not have gotten the land. Ramses kept on helping Egypt by winning all the battles that he started making them look strong. Ramses was in northern Amurru, far past Kadesh, in Tunip, where no Egyptian soldier had been seen since the time of Thutmose III, almost 120 years earlier. Then he captured it, but the next year just kept on going. He kept capturing more cities and gained much more territory in Syria (“Ramses II-Wikipedia”). Ramses had a lot of battle success as he captured many places in Syria. He had his sons to help him as well, which made conquer come faster. He made Egypt much larger expanding it and making it stronger. Without Ramses Egypt in its later years never would have been so big and would not have been as good. Ramses proved to be the perfect leader for Egypt by winning many battles and gaining territory. Expansion success into Syria proved to be huge for Egypt. Ramses captured many areas in Syria gaining back their old territory. Ramses went as far as he could going as deep into Hittite lands as could. This had a lasting impact on Egypt as Egypt was big and made them look stronger than surrounding groups.Ramses II had the most lasting impact on Egypt because of his great battle success and planning and without it, Egypt would not have been so strong and powerful.At the Battle of Kadesh Ramses fighting skills and intelligence won the battle and started the world’s first peace treaty. During the Battle of the Sherden Sea Pirates, he tricked them and easily won, then he used them to help conquer other Sea group people. Then at last in Syria, he went all out and got most of Egypt’s territory back. Ramses II had the most lasting impact on Egypt that will live forever because of his battle strategy which led to success.

In succeed in studying while other friends

In conclusion, having strongly
perseverance and believing their own potential are the way to help students
accomplish in learning at university class which mindfulness trough the
practice of meditation and creating a new good study habit are the best method
to help students enhance their physical and emotional under the pressure in
everyday challenge at university. Have you ever
wondered why some students never succeed in studying while other friends were
successful? Even students will study same course, do the same exercises and the
wisdom is not inferior to each other. The reason why they do not succeed as
other friends is because of the behavior they overlooked. The process of
studying university, every student has a commitment when stepping into a
student. Everyone needs success in learning, however, there are a lot of
students who have failed in their studies and the cause is not from intellect.
Have you turned around to consider, because this failure comes from a lack of persistence.
Grit performance and writing assignment practice can be grantee than IQ and
talent which passion and tirelessness of them would inspire students more
effort and devoted in sort of difficulty subjects to accomplish university
class. Have faith in your own potential is foundation to increase of
possibility to reach the university class goals. If you are willing to achieve
the university class, do not think that we are not good students these things
willing discourage and give up in learning.  I heard that many university students are
heavy and need to study hard. Stressful on daily students’ lives, it makes
student’s health worse and sick easier. What will happen if students keep
stress? High cholesterol, fat, sugar and other chemicals remain in the
bloodstream, all of these for short-term stressful activities which it will
affect the student body.  Meditation is a
tool to destroy the blocker the concussions and mentality that elimination the
stress. Mindfulness though meditation let students beat their pressure which
change anxious to peaceful these is the best approach to enable students to
exalt physical and emotional. Making new great habit in university study’s
where is empowering the brain and manages the mood which emotional and physical
is regular inspiration for the development of mental issue. Meditation is
something that students need to practice generally in the today lifestyle to
give them some clam. A good habit promotes students recover their mind and body
from pressure.

In this turbulent period and even reach

In the period from 1918
to 1923, the Weimar Republic was left to deal with the repercussions of losing
a war. The consequences were grave and so subsequently the republic faced a multitude
of threats politically, socially and economically. However, in spite of the
instability and chaotic environment which dawned over Germany, the republic was
able to survive this turbulent period and even reach a point of temporary stability
later in the decade. Weimar’s survival was an outcome of many factors but the
main ones are the effective and dedicated leadership it had, the widespread support
among the majority of the population (including the military in the form of the
freikorps) and the ineffectiveness and disorganization of the opposition.

It is undeniable that
although the republic had 8 reichskanzler
(the head of government) which is normally a sign of instability and uncertainty,
the presence of Friedrich Ebert as president made sure that there was consistency
in the political world of Weimar. Ebert being Germany’s first-ever democratically
elected head of state was fully dedicated to see the survival of the republic
and was obstinately committed to its success. Ebert used his influence given to
him by article 48 to protect the republic in its critical times.


Alex person or thing” (Dictionary.Com). Stereotypes in

Alex Pena Mr. ConklinU.S. History 222 December, 2017Stereotypes in Modern SocietyOver the course of history, humans have developed presumptions of people from different kinds of backgrounds. This is what is called a stereotype, which is defined as “a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing” (Dictionary.Com). Stereotypes in of themselves are not necessarily wrong, as they give a general description of a type of person. Stereotypes become apparent when people act upon them and assume that they are for certain. One may ask, how have people come to formulate these presumptions of a group of people? That answer lies in the media. People put their own personal biases in the media they create, which in turn impacts the younger generation and the mindsets they develop.The way people see race is largely impacted by what they see in the media. This is because media and film are heavily influenced by stereotypes, so people put their stereotypical thoughts of race, for instance, into the programs they create. One group affected by the stereotypes imposed on them by the media is African Americans. Constantly throughout the course of television history, black people have been portrayed as criminals, drug addicts, sex offenders, and thugs. The first piece of media to drive these images into people’s minds was the 1915 film Birth of a Nation, which featured extremely racist and stereotypical images of black people. Directed by D.W. Griffith, he portrayed the African Americans in the film as “heathens, as unworthy of being free, as uncivilized, as primarily concerned with passing laws so they could marry white women and prey on them” ( The fact that Birth of a Nation was the first widely acclaimed film makes it even more jarring how how people found the movie acceptable and not unsettling at all. The very first film in the history of the movie industry was extremely racist, biased, and stereotypical. For example, a clip from Birth of a Nation displays a group of African American men in congress. The men are behaving very poorly, as there is one man who takes out a bottle of alcohol from which he was hiding in his book and takes a swig. Another scene has an African American man eating what appears to be a chicken leg, which is a common stereotype among black people that they enjoy fried chicken. Movies like Birth of a Nation instill these negative images in the public’s minds, such as being uneducated, uncivil, and overall dangerous people. African American stereotyping is not just in television, however, as it is even evident in video games. Games such as Grand Theft Auto display racial profiling very clearly. In the latest installment of the series, Grand Theft Auto 5, a Youtube Channel called The Game Theorists tested the game to see if the police force were indeed racist. They set up an experiment where the three main characters, Michael, a white man, Trevor, a white man but also a drug addict, and Franklin, an African American, would go up to the cops in their cars and honk the horn at the police and see if anything out of the ordinary would happen. The Game Theorists found that “Franklin was indeed the character that got harassed or attacked the most times by the cops” (Patricia Hernandez). This is eye opening since stereotypes of African Americans are present in video games, which are one the top sources of entertainment for people in the United States. Something that is so easily accessible in the U.S. is filled with stereotypical bias and beliefs. That is why stereotypes are still so prominent in society today, because everywhere all around North America one can see the stereotypes of groups of people such as African Americans.The gay community also falls victim to stereotypical ideas from the media in the United States. Just like with race, once again stereotypes are creeping into the media. For instance, television shows have this fixed image of gay men, where they are seen as outrageous and flamboyant. A stark example of this is from the show Will and Grace, where character Jack is portrayed as a stereotypical homsexual man. He is shown to be loud and have an over exaggerated personality. These stereotypes exist in America because being gay has always been taboo in this country for a long time. Homosexuality is often criticized because there is believed to be a “natural law” regarding sexual orientation. Natural law was first proposed by Plato, where in his book The Republic Book 1 he writes “opposite-sex sex acts cause pleasure by nature, while same-sex sexuality is unnatural” (Brent Pickett). Plato’s argument was that humans are supposed to be straight, and by being gay that person is breaking an unspoken, natural law. Plato’s ideas still influence people’s mindsets today, as there are many people not just in the United States, but all across the globe that support the idea that being straight is right and gay is wrong. That is the reason why the media have stereotypical gays on their shows, because, in a way, they are trying to get a point across that the viewer will end up being the same as the annoying and flamboyant character if they “choose” to be homosexual. While taboo of homosexuality goes all the way back to the days of Plato, it has also been something that goes in hand with religion. The way people feel about homosexual people can and is affected greatly by religion, especially in Christianity. People often infer from the teachings of the bible that “homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior” (“Abomination- Life as a Bible Belt Gay). Since there are some people who are very religious and strictly follow what is said in the Bible, then it is unsurprising that they would stereotype gays in a negative way. If religious people could preach the positive parts of the bible, such as being accepting of everyone, than perhaps the issue regarding homosexuality and religion could be ended. Overall, is a controversial topic in the media due to the stereotypes imposed on homosexual individuals.Muslims are another group of people that are discriminated from the media. Often labeled as terrorists, sex offenders, and evil, Muslims have suffered by these stereotypes that have been put on them. Different to African Americans, who have been experiencing hate and stereotyping for a prolonged amount of time in the States, the hate and racism towards Muslims raised substantially after the September 11 attacks in 2001. Statistics have proven that “Anti-Muslim hate crimes approximately five times more frequent than they were before 2001” (Aliyah Frumin). In recent years, the hate and stereotyping of Muslims have gotten severely worse. This year alone has been rough for Muslims, due to multiple incidents in “Europe and the shootings the San Bernadino shootings last December carried out by a Muslim husband and wife” (Hope and Despair: Being Muslim in America After 9/11). All these events regarding Muslims lead to perhaps the greatest act of discrimination toward Muslims, as earlier this year President Donald Trump exercised a “Muslim ban”. Donald Trump enforced the ban for a few months, not allowing any Muslims from other countries entry into the United States. While there have been extreme Muslims that make the whole religion look like dangerous people, the media also create a fixed, false image of all Muslim people. For example, Sayid Jarrah in the television show Lost is a very stereotypical influenced character of the people of Islam. Jarrah, also the only muslim character on the show, is displayed as an Iraqi Republican Guard and often uses torture to extract information from prisoners throughout the series. Both the media and the government are creating an incorrect image of the muslim people due to stereotypical portrayals on television shows and enforcing discrimination toward the people through bans. It is important to break down these stereotypes of muslims because only a very small percent of them are actually extremists, while the rest of them are just people trying to survive and make a living like the rest of the citizens living in the United States.Why does the media more often than not instill these stereotypical images of African Americans into their programs? That answer is quite simple actually. The people behind the scenes, the creators of the media are putting their own personal biases and beliefs about certain groups of people into their content, while not even realizing it. This is what can be known as an implicit bias, which is defined as attitudes or stereotypes that affect people’s understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. In that case, this means the creators in mainstream media are unconsciously putting their own views on African Americans into their content. Unfortunately, many Americans today still believe black people are dangerous and inadequate. For example, a study done at Marquette University and Texas Christian University found that landlords typically have an implicit bias toward white sounding names. They found that the landlords responded 6.3 percent more frequently to white names than black names. When regarding the lower class, though, the percent becomes even more glaring. Landlords responded to poor white applicants 17.5 percent more often than black applicants. This just proves how much power the media has to influence everyday people like those landlords, how they unconsciously put negative thoughts into the brains of civilians. However, this is a huge problem for the younger generation because children will learn from the shows they watch to view African Americans as criminals. If the media does not change their stereotypical beliefs in their content, there will forever be this cycle of the older generation passing down their false views of black people to the younger generation. One question  after all of this discussion about stereotypes and implicit bias still remains: where do they come from? According to Gray Matter of the New York Times, “Implicit Bias is grounded in a basic human tendency to divide the social world into groups” (Gray Matter). Most people would believe that implicit bias revolves solely around racial bigotry, but bias is actually a human defense mechanism in a sort of way. In the words of Gray Matter, implicit bias is quite frankly “us versus them”, which is similar to that of a fan of a sports team. This does not necessarily justify implicit bias, rather that it gives a reason as to why they exist. Studies have shown that implicit bias can be conquered, however. Results from a series of experiments were published in The Journal of Experimental Psychology at the New York Times. A few hundred volunteers participated in an online game that was about giving and receiving money, as well as creating a situation where the participants saw that one player was stealing another player’s money. There were also volunteers to punish the thief by confiscating all of their money. The experiments were manipulated, however, to make it seem like the thief appeared to be a member of the same team as the punisher or a different one. For example, in one experiment football fans were led to believe the thief was a supporter of the same team or rival team. In another, they were told that the thief was a citizen of their country or a different one. The experiment found that people were biased in their punishment decisions. The punisher was much more harsh towards players of a different team, also being more forgiving towards players of their own team. Once the punisher has a chance to reflect on their decision, however, they suddenly became unbiased, handing out equal and fair punishments to everyone. This experiment shines some light and gives hope that people can, in fact, overcome their own implicit biases. Overcoming one’s implicit bias is crucial in the breaking down of stereotypes, as implicit bias and stereotypes are one in the same. Stereotypes and implicit bias have been to issues that the a United States still deal with today. The media has been a huge contributor in adding fuel to stereotypes, especially towards African Americans, homosexuals, and Muslims. The biases from people who create media impact these three categories because they are letting their own implicit biases creep into their work, which also has an impact on the younger generation. There will always be a cycle of the older generation developing the mindsets of the young to give in to the stereotypes and biases against people who are labelled “different”, which is why society has to continue to fight to break down stereotypes and overcome implicit bias.Works CitedCunningham, Vinson. “”The Birth of a Nation” Isn’t Worth Defending.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 19 June 2017.Frumin, Aliyah, et al. “Hope and Despair: Being Muslim in America After 9/11.”, NBCUniversal News Group, 11 Sept. 2016.Hernandez, Patricia. “Someone Actually Tried Testing Out If GTA V Cops Are ‘Racist’.” Kotaku,, 13 Mar. 2015.Laroche, Nick. Skype Interview. 10 Nov 2017.Moayedzadeh Rad, Jasmine. Skype Interview. 21 Dec 2017.Phillips, Cameron. Skype Interview. 10 Nov 2017.Pickett, Brent. “Homosexuality.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 6 Aug. 2002.”ProjectImplicit.” Education,”ProjectImplicit.” Take a Test,, NPR. “100 Years Later, What’s The Legacy Of ‘Birth Of A Nation’?” NPR, NPR, 8 Feb. “Understanding Implicit Bias.” Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, Yudkin, Daniel A., and Jay Van Bavel. “The Roots of Implicit Bias.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 9 Dec 2016.

Similarities, an Eides statt, dass wir die

Similarities, differences and key success factors in the marketing
strategy of the companies ´Harley Davidson Motorcycles´ and ´KTM Motorcycles



at the

IMC Fachhochschule



Bachelor programme

Unternehmensführung und E-Business Management








Supervisor: Dr. Thomas Handler

Submitted on: 11.01.2018

Eidesstattliche Erklärung

„Wir erklären an Eides statt, dass wir die vorliegende
Seminararbeit selbstständig verfasst, und in der Bearbeitung und Abfassung
keine anderen als die angegebenen Quellen oder Hilfsmittel benutzt, sowie
wörtliche und sinngemäße Zitate als solche gekennzeichnet haben. Die
vorliegende Seminararbeit wurde noch nicht anderweitig für Prüfungszwecke



Datum:  11.01.2018                                                                                                             

Michael Teufl






Erklärung. I
Inhaltsverzeichnis. II
1…….. General Introduction. 1
1.1…….. Research Question. 1
1.2…….. Approach in the seminar paper 1
2…….. Harley Davidson Motorcycles. 2
2.1…….. Marketing Strategy. 2
2.1.1……. How the company go to market 3
2.2…….. Group of Costumers. 3
2.3…….. Product Range. 3
2.4…….. Harley Davidson Marketing Mix. 4
3…….. KTM Motorcycles. 5
3.1…….. Marketing Strategy. 5
3.2…….. Group of Costumers. 5
3.3…….. Product range. 6
3.4…….. KTM Marketing Mix. 6
4…….. Why does Harley lose
costumers?. 8
4.1…….. What is Harley already doing?. 8
4.2…….. What can Harley do?. 9
5…….. Differences and similarities
in the marketing Strategy of KTM and Harley Davidson  10
6…….. Conclusio. 11
7…….. List of Literature. 12


General Introduction

The purpose of this work is to give an overview on two Motorcycle
manufacturers KTM Motorcycles and Harley Davidson Motorcycles. They are
companies that produces motorbikes for the public road. But even though they
produce products in the same segment, they are completely different. KMT
produces for rather younger group of customers. Harley Davidsons special field
concentrate on older costumers.

Furthermore, this paper provides a comparison of the similarities and
differences in the marketing strategy.

Research Question

The research Question is to find Similarities,
differences and key success factors in the marketing strategy of the companies ´Harley Davidson Motorcycles´ and ´KTM Motorcycles

1.2     Approach in the
seminar paper

In the first part of the paper general information about both company’s
Harley Davidson and KTM will be explained.

In the second part of the document it will be discussed why Harley
Davidson lose costumers and what Harley Davidson even do or additionally can do
to stop losing customers.

In the third part the differences and similarities in the marketing
strategy of both companies will be described.




2     Harley Davidson

This chapter contains the marketing strategy, group of costumers and the
product range. Harley Davidson Motorcycles is a manufacturer of high end
heavyweight motorcycles and it was founded in Milwaukee in 1901. The vison from
this company is “Fulfilling dreams of personal freedom”. They think that this
bond brings customers, employees, suppliers, enthusiasts and dealers together. (Davidson, Harley Davidson Company Webseite, 2018)

Marketing Strategy

The market positioning strategy that Harley Davidson follows is that
they sell cult products and they are priced well above the average price
that is normal in this industry. This is possible because the company enjoys a high
customer loyalty.

Their Vision is also a very important point relating to the marketing
strategy, the company´s idea was not to sell only bikes, they sell ´Harley
Experience` in association with a positive sense of life. They create an
image of lifestyle for biker. (Förster, 2006)

HD pursues the following strategy to seek on the market until 2027. (Davidson,
Harley Davidson Company Webseite, 2018)

·       The company
want to attract about 2 million new customers in the U.S. Market

·       At
international level H-D want to grow their business up to 50% of the annual
Volume. They want to grow their brand awareness and scope in these markets.

·       Until 2027,
their product plan is to release 100 new high Impact Bikes. Their product plan
is the most aggressive in their history.

·       HDMC also want
to satisfy their shareholders by bring superior high returns to them.

·       To care about
environmental impact is as important as grow business, it is important to the
company to paying close attention to the effect they create on the planet and


2.1.1     How the company
go to market

All products produced by Harley Davidson are vended through a network of
1400 independent dealers in about 100 countries. (Daidson,

Group of Costumers

HD motorcycle riders come from many different cultural groups. What
brings all riders together is that they are all freedom-loving and incredible
adventure searching. It doesn’t matter what gender, age or ethnical background
they have.

Harley-Davidson stands for – independence, authenticity and the passion
for being on the open road.

They want to build a different generation of motorcycle riders and want
to bring the fabulously feeling of freedom to costumers. (Davidson,
Harley Davidson Company Webseite, 2018)

Product Range

Products and Services HD offer are Motorcycles, additional requirements
like Parts and Accessories, general Merchandise and financial service.

The first segment are motorcycles HD manufactures and sell custom
cruiser and touring motorcycles. The product range is partitioned into five
segments: Sportser ®, VRSC™, Dyna®, Softtail® and Touring. Every family
includes a variety of models.

The second segment are motor parts and motor accessories. These products
meet the same high standards as the motorcycles. They are produced for
individual customers who want to customize their bike with decorative parts and
performance parts.

The third part of the product line is the Motorclothes® Merchandise. The
company sell clothes for on- and off-road driving. There the customers, riders
and non-riders can find a variety of items to choose from. (Davidson,
Harley Davidson, 2017)


Harley Davidson Marketing Mix

The marketing mix, also known as the 4P´s is the strategy and tactic
used from a company to place their brand and their products in a market. (Goi, 2009)


The company offers a limited product assortment (also mentioned at 1.5
product range), motorcycles, engines, parts and accessories.

Additional they offer Rentals through authorized rental dealers. This
component shows they have their business to a limited number of product lines. (Davidson,
Harley Davidson, 2017)


The price strategy that is used by Harley is the premium pricing
strategy. The company justifies their high prices by the quality of its
products. (Davidson, Harley Davidson, 2017)


The company has three channels to sell their products, authorized
dealers and rental dealers. The third part is the Harley Davidson Online store. (Davidson, Harley Davidson, 2017)


Promotion takes place commonly alongside the biker community. Personals
selling is important to Harley Davidson they encourage customers to try the
company´s products at dealers. In addition, advertising is also important to
reach new customers. (Davidson,
Harley Davidson, 2017)

3     KTM Motorcycles

This chapter contains the marketing strategy,
group of costumers and the product range of KTM, its Europe’s biggest Motorcycle
Manufacturer, on their way they always want to race ahead. They want to develop
their leading position across all market segments. Furthermore, they are
expanding into new and emerging markets.

Marketing Strategy

KTM´s Company Vision – Our vision is to create high performance motor
vehicles that are never anything short of premium and made form the highest
quality components.

KTM Motorcycles say that building high quality performance vehicles in
only half of the task. Because it is as important to build these first-class
vehicles as connecting customers with it.

KTM group contain two brands to perform in every area, this includes KTM
and Husqvarna to provide first class service for costumers. KTM thinks that
customer intimacy (Kundennähe) comes to the success of organizations so they
investing in growing this area and optimize the services that offered to

To provide employees knowhow about larger sales and marketing process
KTM hold training courses (inside out perspective). (KTM M. , 2018)

Most costumers buy a KTM motorcycle to own a high-quality product with
durable parts that last for a long time, also because the latest racing
technology is implemented in their bikes.

KTM´s actual strategy is to ensure product quality to meet demands from
customers, while reducing costs for materials and production. (KTM,

Group of Costumers

partnership with 31 international sales subsidiaries and two additional joint
ventures in New Zealand and Dubai, KTM GROUP staff service and attend to over
2,000 dealers and importers worldwide on behalf of both KTM Sportmotorcycle
GmbH and Husqvarna Motorcycles GmbH.

Product range

KTM manufactures a big assortment of off-road motorcycles, Street bikes
and since 2008 the KTM X-Bow is in the product range. They produce a wide
variety of off-road bikes motocross, enduro and free ride.

The KTM motocross and free ride bikes are only designed for
off-road riding, customers are not allowed to drive this bikes on public roads.
The enduro versions are the legal to ride on the street because they are
supplied with equipment that a driver need to drive at public streets.

Street bikes are divided in the following segments, Supermoto, Adventure
tourers, Sports tourer, Naked bikes, Supersport and Superbikes. All those bikes
are street-legal

The last vehicle segment is the KTM X-Bow, lightweight sport car
designed for two persons. The whole chassis material is carbon fibre, the car
is powered by an engine designed by Audi.

KTM also produces Parts and Wear for motorcyclists, it contains tuning
parts for costumers to customize their street and off-road bikes. Clothing and
accessories also included in this segment. (KTM
M. , 2018)

KTM Marketing Mix


The Point Product is mentioned at 1.9 product range KTM


KTM is a premium brand, but they follow a mid-premium price strategy.
Because as a result of this they are able to reach a big number of costumers
and so they are able to oversell a lot of its products.


KTM´s headquarter is located in Mattinghofen in Austria. The company has
a widespread network, where they distribute their products they are available
for sale at about 400 independent dealers in the international market. Every
vendor who is able to sell product manufactured by KTM is authorized by the


The enterprise use every possible way to promote their products. They
are present at social media. Magazines and print media are also used to promote
the brand.

4     Why does Harley
lose costumers?

In this chapter, it will be discussed why Harley lose costumers and what
Harley even do or additionally can do to stop losing customers.

Harley Davidson´s Motorcycles are popular for their customers who are
born in the time of the Baby Boom, the Baby Boomer generation, which forms the
biggest customer base. The problem is that this customer segment is aging. The
company is battling to replace its core customer base. (Forbes, 2017)

The next reason is that the average age of costumers who buy heavyweight
motorcycles increased since 1990 from 32 to 47. Data form the motorcycle
industry show that nearly 50 percent of the riders are over 50 and only about
10 percent are 30 to 34.

The heavyweight motorcycle marked in the U.S has not risen since 2005,
and it will not in near future. This is because the young Costumer born between
1980 and 2000, called the millennials are more price-conscious. The market also
hit because of the growing uncertainty relating to politics in this country. So
the manufacturer hast so be strong in competition and also grow in a slowing
market. (Forbes,

The millennials buying a lot of bikes, but they are not new, the Company
has to motivate the millennials to buy new bikes instead of used ones. But the
problem is that the new 2018 models start at over 11.000 $

Another reason is that only a few women drive a bike like a Harley
Davidson. Actual data shows that only 14 percent of the riding population are
female. (if mom rides, the kids will ride) (Readingeagle,

What is Harley already doing?

 The company is concentrating on
grow the sport of motorcycling. As the core customer base ages, they must win a
new generation of riders. In 2017 they win over 100.000 new customers in the
whole world, but the majority is in the U.S market.

As the core customer segment, the Baby Boomer generation, is aging
Harley starts to diversify its customer base, since the last years. With their
marketing strategy, they want to reach more women, African-Americans and the
young adults (18 to 34).

The next measure is that Harley Davidson try to extract the growth
opportunity in the segment of used bikes. With this sanctions they also win new
costumers and bring costumers back who already bought a bike like a Harley, so
the company could profit from the high brand loyalty that they build over more
than hundred years. (Forbes,

What can Harley do?

How to win in the industry that Harley plays, create the right
experience for the target market, membership in exclusive clubs, feeling roaring
engine, high quality bike, exclusive look and benefit from premium brand

5     Differences and
similarities in the marketing Strategy of KTM and Harley Davidson

In this
chapter, the difference and similarities in the marketing strategy of both
companies will be discussed. On the one hand Harley Davidson sell cult products
for a small customer group on the other hand KTM sell high performance bikes
for a wide assortment of customers.

products are delivered in a high-end quality, in this point both companies
follow the same strategy.

KTM follow
a two-brand strategy with a wide product range, to cover as many parts of the
market as possible. Harley Davidson has a narrow assortment of products,
because they only act in the market of heavy weight motorcycles.

The typical
costumers of Harley Davidson are older, freedom loving and male. KTM provides
bikes for nearly every costumer group, but the strategy focuses rather young
costumers, because freeriding bikes and superbikes mostly used by younger customers.

What is
sure is that customers of Harley Davidson are very loyal with the brand. They
like to live the `Harley Experience, it is very important for them to live the
freedom feeling that every Harley Davidson motorcycle provides. On the other
side, KTM sells standard products for every customer who wants a bike with high
quality (without the special experience).

KTM sells
standard bikes in comparison to Harley Davidson who sells individual bikes with
the special `Harley Experience`.

6     Conclusio

The author
come to the following conclusion even if both manufacturer are producing and
bring products from the same product category to market they differ in their
marketing strategy and in the way, how their customers act.

List of Literature

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Von Harley Daidson: abgerufen
H. (12. 12 2017). Harley Davidson. Von Haley Davdison:
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Davidson, H. (2017). Harley Davidson. US: Halrey
Davdison. Von Harley
Davidson: one_pager_v4 abgerufen
Davidson, H. (02. 01 2018). Harley Davidson Company
Webseite. Von Harley
Davidson Company Webseite:
Förster, A. (2006). Marketing Trends . Germany :
Forbes. (7.
02 2017). Forbes. Von Forbes:
Goi, C. (2009). A review of marketing mix. n.g: n.g.
KTM. (2. 2
2016). KTM. Von KTM:
(01. 01 2018). KTM Motorcycles. Von KTM Motorcycles: abgerufen
(28. 12 2017). Readingeagle. Von Readingeagle: