Everything wrongly charged transactions.If it is a

Everything you need to know about credit card transaction reversalsMost of us never bother, but failing to cross-check your credit card statements can take a huge toll on your financial well-being. There have been many instances where discrepancies in credit card charges have been reported. Yet, people never bother to go through their transactions and push it aside by just paying their dues on time. Remember, there is a good chance that you might find an inaccurate transaction on your card. The discrepancy can either be a mistakenly charged fee or a duplicate charge. It can also be a fraudulent one as well. In such instances, the first thing to do is to contact your respective credit card issuing company and report the discrepancy. Bringing it to your card issuer’s notice and identifying the inconsistencies will help you process the reversal of those wrongly charged transactions.If it is a stolen or a lost card that the transaction has been done on, ensure that your credit card company is informed about it and freeze your account immediately to prevent any further fraudulent activities.Here’s a list to provide you with a better idea of the transactions that can be disputed and avail a reversal:A transaction cancelled within the cancellation period offered by the dealer can be reversed on demand.Unprocessed refunds can also be disputed.Your credit card isn’t supposed to be billed once you’ve cancelled the auto-payments on your card. If you find that your card is being charged even after the cancellation, bring it to the card issuer’s notice and request for a reversal.In case, the receipts you hold do not match with the charges applied on your credit card statements, you can request for a reversal.Transactions which were not authorized by the cardholder can be disputed for reversal.There are instances where the dealer might have charged you twice for the same product bought online. This is where you can dispute on duplicate charges and request for a refund.If you’re anxious on how to get your refund at the earliest, here are some common situations where you might find discrepancies on your card and the easiest possible ways to get a reversal on the transactions in such scenarios:•    Credit card swiped twice:Getting your credit card swiped twice is pretty common these days. Most of the times, it is the POS machine that malfunctions rather than a credit card. Surprisingly, most of us don’t even bother to check if we’ve been charged twice or not. However, if you find that your card has been charged for both the swipes. The next step would be to inform your credit card company about the purchases. The issuer will then provide the transaction details to the dealer for reversal of one of the two transactions. If lucky, you may get a cash reversal on the spot from the merchant for swiping twice to save the trouble of waiting for reversal.•    Cancelling of a credit card purchase: Purchase can be made either online or at the local store down the street. However, a person can cancel his/her credit card transactions on the purchase in two ways. He/she can either make a direct cancellation of the order after which the purchase is nullified. This will automatically reverse your transactions. You can also demand a chargeback. For those who don’t know what a chargeback is, it is service provided by credit card issuers enabling cardholders to revert their purchases if the product or services purchased were found unsatisfactory. The only catch is that any claims for a chargeback must be filed within 6 months from the date of purchase.Usually, a reversal takes a week or two to process. However, if the card issuing company or the online merchant fail to process the refund even after repeated reminders, cardholders can always approach the consumer court to dispute against the merchants. One can also lodge a formal complaint at the district forum court if the merchant still doesn’t comply with your refund request. In case of online transactions, most of the merchants resolve their customer complaints as soon as possible as a bad publicity can prove to have a negative impact on their business.Remember, the terms and conditions for refunds vary from merchant to merchant. Some merchants refund the entire refund sum within a given time without any further enquiries. However, some websites opt not to reverse the transaction but to give the customers the option to purchase another product or service of the same value from their site. Hence, it is important to thoroughly go through the terms and conditions for cancellations and reversals before purchasing products and services from online websites.

Moriah By complementing the gods and informing them

Moriah ChangAngie LiuMichelle TanHadassah SommerTiffany ThaiPeriod 2Part Two (Parados and Scene One) for Oedipus Rex pp. 3-81. What is the mood of the chorus upon its entrance? What appeals do they make?The mood of the chorus upon its entrance consists of a fear of the plague. The chorus of Theban senators is also suppliant toward any god who might be able to relieve the city’s plight. Overall, the chorus seems desperate for help since “the unnumbered death of its people the city dies; those children that are born lie dead on the naked earth unpitied, spreading contagion of death” (203-208). They appeal to various gods like Athena, Artemis, Apollo, Dionysus, and Zeus to “smite the War God, Father Zeus, beneath your thunderbolt, for you are the Lord of the lightning, the lightning that carries fire” (218-221). By complementing the gods and informing them of their troubles, the chorus hopes that their prayers will be answered.2. In what ways does Oedipus criticize his subjects? What does this reveal about his character?Oedipus criticizes his subjects by by scolding the chorus for failing to find Laius’ killer a long time ago. Upon talking to his subjects, Oedipus says, “But if you shall keep silence, if perhaps some one of you, to shield a guilty friend, some one of you to reject my words” (251-253). This quote shows how Oedipus is castigating the citizens of Thebes for letting the murdered for unknown for so long as they remain in silence.3. What initial signs of rashness do we see in Oedipus?We see initial signs of rashness in Oedipus as he makes certain decisions concerning the murderer of Laius. For instance, he invokes the curse on Laius’ murderer or anyone who is helping the criminal by saying “Upon the murderer I invoke this curse, whether he is one man and all unknown, … may he wear out his life in misery to miserable doom!” (266-269). Furthermore, when Oedipus speaks to Tiresias, he taunts the blind prophet when Tiresias tells hims information he chooses not to believe, and that Oedipus is actually the murderer of Laius. Instead, Oedipus makes Tiresias repeat his statement twice, and continues to mock him and even his blindness.4. Why is Teiresias reluctant to tell what he knows to Oedipus? What seems to be Tiresias’ philosophical attitude?Teiresias is reluctant to tell what he knows about Oedipus because he says “This I knew well, but had forgotten it, else I would have not come here” (348-349). This quote demonstrates how Teiresias knows the truth, but wishes he did not. Because of this, Teiresias is shown to be reluctant in telling Oedipus what he knows. Furthermore, Tiresias’ philosophical attitude seems to be pessimistic and fatalistic. Teiresias is shown to be a firm believer in destiny and in the god’s determining the fate of all things.  Fatalistic- fate cannot be changed; future is fixedPessimistic; believes that nothing can turn out well5. What ironies arise in this scene?An irony that arises in this scene is when Oedipus speaks of his relation with the previous king Laius. Oedipus claims that he will find the killer of Laius as if he were searching for the killer of his own father. Another irony in this scene is demonstrated in the exchanges between Oedipus and the blind prophet Tiresias. Oedipus mocks Tiresias for his physical lack of vision, when Oedipus himself is blinded by his future even in his physical ability to see.6. What false conclusion does Oedipus reach as a result of this quarrel with Tiresias? What effect will this conclusion have on Oedipus?As a result of his quarrel with Tiresias, Oedipus makes the false conclusion that Teiresias is working with Creon against him to overthrow his throne and his power. Oedipus accuses Tiresias, thinking that Tiresias was “complotter of the deed and doer of the deed save in so far as for the actual killing” (393-395). This shows Oedipus’ tendency to make hasty or rash conclusions. This characteristic will affect Oedipus’ journeying in discovering his future which will therefore increase his suffering later on when he finds out the real truth about himself. Also believes that Tiresias was bribed by Creon and that Creon wants Oedipus’ place on the throne. Part Four (Choral Ode II and Scene 3) for Oedipus Rex pp. 13 -181. What is the subject and tone of the second choral ode? The subject of the second choral ode comprises of the chorus’ warning against pride or hubrice and blasphemy. And the tone of the second choral ode consists of fear and anxiety. The chorus begins by saying “May destiny ever find me pious in word and deed prescribed by the laws that live on high” (993-995). This quote shows how the chorus is announcing that the world is ruled by destiny. The chorus also denounces prideful men who would try to defy the gods.2. What is the dramatic effect of Jocasta’s prayer at the beginning of this scene? Jocasta’s prayer at the beginning of this scene has a dramatic effect because her prayer stands as a contrast to her previous misbeliefs on oracles and their prophecies. Overall, this shows that she still honors and respects the gods and their power. For example, when the messenger delivers the new of Polybus’ death, Jocasta proclaims, “Be quick and run to the King with the news! O oracles of the Gods, where are you now?” (1064-1066). In this quote, Jocasta is rejoicing at the news that the messenger is bringing her as she believes that her prayers have also been answered. 3. What comment does Jocasta make to the chorus and the messenger about fate? Jocasta makes the comment to the chorus and the messenger that everyone is ruled by fate and that no one can see into the future. As Jocasta is offering branches wrapped in wool to Apollo, she says “I can do no good by my advice, and so I came as suppliant to you, Lycaen Apollo, who are nearest” (1041-1042).  This shows that humans need only to enjoy life and live in the present age. 4. What does the name “Oedipus” mean? Why is this important?The name “Oedipus” means swollen foot. This is important because his name’s literal meaning is the clue to Oedipus’ true identity as he was taken from the house of Laius as a baby and left in the mountains with his feet bound together.  Oedipus was given this name because his feet were bound together when he was abandoned on Mount Cithaeron. 5. Why does Jocasta attempt to keep Oedipus from questioning the shepherd? How does Oedipus misconstrue her pleas to stop his investigations?Jocasta attempts to keep Oedipus from questioning the shepherd because she realizes the horrible truth that Oedipus is her son, and that the shepherd will be able to confirm this. Upon having this shocking revelation, Jocasta tries to prevent Oedipus from further questioning the shepherd by saying “I beg you, do not hunt this out, I beg you” (1207). However, Oedipus misconstrues her pleas to stop his investigation as he believes that she will find out he is of low birth and will therefore be ashamed of him. The fact that Jocasta is worried over his personal status angers Oedipus. 6. What is implied about self-knowledge and its price in Oedipus Rex at this point in the play?At this point in the play, Sophocles seems to be implying that the journey to self-knowledge is difficult, and that what is discovered may not be what one necessarily wants to find or discover. Instead, it can be dangerous and ruin one’s own life. Part Five (Ode III, Scene 4, Ode IV, Eodos) for Oedipus Rex pp. 18-231. What is the subject of the third choral ode? The subject of the third choral ode comprises of the chorus inquiring about Oedipus’ birth and how he came to be. The chorus wonders if he was born from nymphs and gods. They are in awe of Oedipus, and wonder whether he was really born of human parents, or if he is god-like.2. Why is the shepherd reluctant to speak? What facts does the shepherd bring to light?The shepherd is reluctant to speak because he is terrified of Oedipus’ reaction in knowing the real truth, for once he reveals the truth about giving the child to the messenger, Oedipus will know his true identity.  The shepherd brings to light the facts that Oedipus is indeed Laius and Jocasta’s child. 3. What admirable trait is revealed about Oedipus’ character in the scene where he discovers the full truth about himself?In the scene where Oedipus discovers the fills truth about himself, an admirable trait that is revealed in Oedipus’ character would be his courage. Upon discovering out his true identity, Oedipus exclaims, “O, O, O they will all come, all come out clearly!” (1364-1365). This quote shows Oedipus’ determination in finding out the truth of his identity even though he knows it might not be the good news he would like to hear. 4. How does the chorus react in the fourth ode to Oedipus’ turn of fortune? How does the chorus expand on the theme of illusion and reality?In the fourth ode, the chorus is profoundly shocked by Oedipus’ turn of fortune. The chorus experiences his doom as if it were their own, similar to Oedipus’ empathy with the city’s suffering at the beginning of the play. Furthermore, the chorus expands on the theme of illusion and reality by saying “Hence he was called my king and hence was honored the highest of all honors; and hence he rules in the great city of Thebes. But now whose tale is more miserable?” (1385-1389). This quote shows how the chorus, like Oedipus himself, has been blinded by the truth. And that Oedipus’ happiness and that of Thebes also, has merely been an illusion this whole time. 5. Compare Jocasta’s final actions in the play to those of Oedipus.At the end of the play, Jocasta commits suicide by hanging herself, and Oedipus “Tore the brooches, the hold chases brooches fastening her robe away from and lifting them up high dashed them on his own eyeballs” (1455-1458). Jocasta’s final actions are similar to that of Oedipus’ because they both self inflict themselves and feel remorse or responsible for their actions. Jocasta decides to end her life immediately upon finding out the truth, whereas Oedipus decides to live on with his suffering. Upon knowing the truth, Oedipus even comes out publicly to make a spectacle of himself.6. What is Oedipus’ reaction to his downfall? What does this say about his character and his courage? Oedipus’ reaction to his downfall is of devastation, as he gauges out his eyes and demands for himself to be exiled. This shows us Oedipus’ heroism in discovering his own mystery. Overall Oedipus is horrified to discover his true identity, but he still chooses to take responsibility for it. Oedipus demonstrates a greater sense of heroism in taking his punishment into his own hands and even insists on making his doom in life his own responsibility. 7. What does Oedipus ask of Creon? What does Creon decide? What does this decision show about the character of Creon?Oedipus asks or begs Creon for exile, and is determined that his own curse may be carried out in all its awful integrity. After learning the truth, he says to Creon “Drive me from here with all the speed you can to where I may not hear a human voice” (1216-1217). However, Creon decides wait and hear what the priests and oracles have to say concerning his request. This decision of Creon’s character stands in contrast to the extraordinarily decisive Oedipus in his unwillingness to take destiny out of the hands of the gods and into his own. Therefore, Creon is shown to be a strong believer in fate and in the god’s determining the future of all things.   8. What does Oedipus sense about his destiny? Is Oedipus responsible for his destiny? What does this play ultimately show about fate? Oedipus senses that his destiny is incomplete or is far from complete as much as he may wish for death. Oedipus is not responsible for his destiny as there was nothing he could have done in order to alter or change his fate. Overall, this play ultimately shows that one’s fate cannot be changed or avoided.

Food the agricultural sector in order for

Food is an important part of our lives, which is why the way it is grown, manufacture and transported is worth understanding and improving. The food industry causes a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packing of foodstuff. This sector the food industry focuses on the activities that connects supply demand and consumption of foods for the raising populationGrowth trend in food sector plays an important role and can be associated directly to the agricultural sector. Agricultural sector is the essential key component of food sector because this sector provides the raw materials for food processing for the consumers in their day by day basis of food consumption. The government is also the key factor for the development of food sector since government supports the agricultural sector in order for the development and improvement of the needs of people in terms of food consumption. Also we need to take a consideration about the supply and demand on how the supply affect the demand and how the demand affect the supply of the certain product. For an example when the supply for an agricultural product goes up, the price of the product goes down and the demand for the product can rise because its cost lessen.If we talk about agricultural products, there are four main important produce of agriculture and this are the; crops, livestock, poultry and fishery.Since Philippines is agricultural base country and these four major produce of the agricultural sector is rich in the country, this main produce are the reason for our satisfaction for food consumption and for our survival, however there are some situations that this products decline its production in some years due to different scenario like in 2009 and 2010 were drought occur during 2009, causing a declining production in 2010 because in the volume of production in 2010 is the aftermath of the drought that occur in 2009. In 2013, Rice crop production devastated by typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). In 2015 the sector’s performance was negatively affected by the long dry spell and damages caused by Typhoon Lando and due this typhoon in 2016 palay and corn farms which suffered the most damaged, and in 2016, excessively dry conditions due to a strong El Niño as well as excessively wet conditions due to typhoons and because of this events the supply of crops went down which affected the production and the consumers as what I said above discussion about supply and demand.Prospects of the food sector today are going up and will be continuing to go up for the many years because the growing demand for convenience has led to the expansion of the Philippine food industry in the form of fast-food restaurants and casual dining restaurants. Big companies restaurants are also growing, especially in Metro Manila because of its fast growing population and the higher demand of the products. Competition for fast food restaurants giving different concepts of advertisement convincing costumers to try their products, with the operators in a restaurant always interested having new and thrilling menu concepts to fascinate consumers.

As to do what we need and

  As I read these chapters on Existential
Psychotherapy I have learned a great deal about myself and about my
relationships with others. I can tend to be one of those who makes excuses for
my behaviors or for my life being the way it is. However, as I read on in the
chapters I discovered the 6 Propositions of basic dimension of the human
conditions.  We must understand the
meaning and how to apply them to our own life’s and learn how to teach our
clients how to apply them to their life’s. I wish I had these tools years back.
I might not have had the downward spiral that I have had. Yet this is part of
Existential Psychotherapy learning we have freedom to do what we need and have
to do in our life’s. They are as follow

1) The Capacity for
Self-Awareness. We are all free to make any decision regarding our life.
Whether it be a positive or negative we are the writers of our life. We choose
our destiny in life.  We have to realize
the more self-aware we are the greater the responsibility we have for the
consequences in the choices we make. We are alone in this process of life, yet
we are able to connect with other beings. 
We need to make sure the client understands this processes
self-awareness is the root of most other human  
capacities. Without the knowledge of self-awareness, we cannot fully
grow as human beings.  We must in the
long run of life make sure we start out with our children, teach them that they
must be aware of their actions and all actions have consequences good or bad we
have to pay for whatever decision we make. Helping clients to work thru their
anxiety they will have for thinking or making decisions for themselves

For myself I see this
very clearly, I have had some rough times the past 10 yrs. or so. I am just
seeing the consequences to my actions 10 yrs. ago. I have been living in one
bad situation after another, have had to rebuild my life (belongings, clothes,
make-up etc.) over the past 10 yrs. at least 20 times. I know its untrue but I
feel if my actions 10 yrs. ago I would not be suffering every day. I struggle
with “daddy issues” and I blame my dad for not being there for me.
Yet I turn and do that to my children. How can I say it’s my father’s fault for
not being there for me yet I did the same thing to my children? I have to take
the responsibility for my actions and realize that it has been my decisions, my
choices to be in the situations I am in now. I have the choice to leave an
abusive relationship. Yet how can I when this person I fell in love with is
dying? I can’t blame him for my sorrow, my hurt and resentment that he is
struggling with his own issues. If I want a different way of life it’s my
choice not his for me to stay or go. This is my realizing myself awareness in
the situation I am in at the moment. Wow papers are helpful….

2) Freedom and
responsibility- Schneider and Krug have 3 existential therapy values. These are
1) the freedom to become within the context of natural and self-imposed
limitations. 2) the capacity to reflect on the meaning of choices. 3) The
capacity to act the choices we make.

We don’t have a choice in
the situations we are born in to, however we do have the freedom to choose the
actions we take in our life’s. Sartre stated that we are constantly making
choices in what kind of person we are to become to exist is to never end making
choices in our life’s. However, we try to escape from our freedom by defending
as a fixed or static entity. Sartre refers to this as inauthenticity refusing
to take responsibility for our actions, we are lacking the awareness of our
responsibility and blame the universe for our actions.

It’s like my situation
now. It my decision to stay so just because Dontay makes rude comments and
hurts my feeling every day. It is my choice to how I respond to his actions. Is
he making me a bitter ugly person? No, I choose to be that way. I choice to be
unhappy, for if I change the situation to where I just leave he can’t put me
down or make my unhappy any longer. If I leave then that is the choice I make,
If I have to weigh the outcome of both situations, leaving or staying. Then I
have to use the capacity with in me to act on the choices I have to make. This
would be the best example I can give for this proposition.

3)Striving for the
identity and relationship to others- most of us want to find out who we are and
strive to find our own identity. It’s not an easy process and doing so takes a
lot of courage. Most of us sell out by becoming what others want us to be. We
become what is expected of us and that makes us strangers to ourselves. Courage
entellus moving forward in spite of anxiety of the unknown. One of the biggest
fears is discovering we are nothing inside no core, no substance noting what
the world expects us to be. We as therapist can teach client to accept the
choice to step outside the box and be the person they want to be. Clients will
feel the aloneness in this process. This comes from realizing that we cannot
count on anyone or anything for conformation or validation. This is hard for a
lot of people; however, it is ok to feel aloneness because before we can have a
relationship with others we must first have a relationship with ourselves.

For me finding my
identity has been the backbone to all my struggles. Since I was young I have
been the babysitter for my younger cousins, the mother to my children, the wife
to my ex-husband and the daughter to my fighting-divorced parents. I was
struggling with who Arlene is. I ended up losing myself and was not happy with
the person I was becoming or the person I became. I ended up feeling overwhelmed
with this and had a breakdown. The counselors and church guidance I received
was for me to leave my family and try and find myself. Which I feel today was
the wrong decision. I have yet to figure out who Arlene is and I continue to be
the person others expect me to be. I thought I had the courage to find myself,
yet here I am 10 yrs. later and still struggling if not struggling ever more
than before trying to find who I am. I always feel alone even when I am with a
group of people. No one understands my depression or my unhappiness. I don’t
understand it. I am in a constant struggle with myself on what kind of person I
want to be, what kind of life I want and how to make up to my children for
leaving them at such a young age. It is daily battle with in myself and no
outlet to realize my anxiety and despair.

4) Search for meaning. A
distinctly human characteristic that is the struggle for a sense of
significance and purpose in life. This is when counselors ask questions to the
client such as “are you happy with the way your life is going?”
“do you like the direction your life is going?” These are the
conceptional framework in helping clients to challenge the meaning of their
lives. Clients usually just throw out their values that they were brought up with,
before they figure out new ones. This leaves them struggling to find meaning in
life. This causes the anxiety in their life. Therapist must have faith that
eventually with the struggle most clients will have during this time that they
will find a value system that will help them find the meaning they are
searching for. A therapist trust during this time is important so that the
client feels comfortable trusting themselves in this search.  Meaningless in life can lead to emptiness,
hollowness or a condition that Frankl calls existential vacuum. This usually
happens when people don’t fill the void of making others happy with empty
tasks. People trying to develop a meaning of their life but feel empty because
there are no real values is the heart of why people come to counseling.
Everyone needs some kind of grounding some kind of assurance that they are
heading in the right direction. If a counselor is in tune with a client they
will be able to help them realize that they are or are not heading in the correct

This is what my counselor
did. I had explained the situation and layed it out in front of her my void in
my life and what I felt needed to be done. With only a couple of sessions she
agreed with me that I should just walk away from my family. I thought it to be
odd and struggled with the decision for a while. My gut and my heart were
telling me to stay however, I went with what the “expert” suggested.
Not that it’s her fault I choose my ending result and now I have the
consequences for my decision. I always look back and think was she really
listening or was she truly in tune with what my struggles were? I will never
know there is no time travel machine to where I can go back and change the
decision so I am stuck with what I have in front of me.

5) Anxiety as a Condition
of Living. Existential Anxiety is the unavoidable results of being confronted
with the “givens of existence.” It arises when we find our mortality,
our pain and our struggle for survival in life. As we accept the freedom we choice
and the consequences from this freedom our anxiety levels get higher. With the
anxiety is a signal that we are ready for change and accepting the growth of
our lives that in our new future. Anxiety from this change in life accepting
the freedom is normal anxiety. It does not have to be repressed it can be
powerful a motivational force for our change in our life. If we do not deal
with this kind of anxiety we can have neurotic anxiety. It tends to immobilize
a person from reaching their goals in life. Everyone in life experiences
anxiety it is how we deal with it, is how we living with awareness and being
fully alive. Living with anxiety is to be living life fully not hiding behind
the imaginary securities in life that we build in our head or that people have
given us. We must realize and accept death as an uncertainty, when we accept
life for what it is the pain, loneliness and so forth only during that time do
we decrease our daily anxiety and our self-confidence rises.

6)Awareness of Death and
Nonbeing. The existentialist does not view death negatively but holds awareness
as basic human condition. A huge human characteristic is the ability to grasp
the future of life and the inevitable death. 
Death should not be looked at as a threat. It should be a motivation to
enjoy our life’s and accept and appreciating our daily life. We should reflect
on how we can live fully instead of the fear of death and being held back by
the unknown of life.

This is a Proposition
that hits home extremely. As Dontay gets sicker or has a bad day or gets bad
results we both have to deal with the reality that he will be dying soon. That
has us both on edge and for him more. I know he hasn’t really dealt or accepted
the fact that he is dying. He just knows he is in pain and he doesn’t like it.
Here is where my decisions come in. Cause I understand that he is struggling
with his immortality and that he is not able to be the man he once was. So, do
I take the abuse and stay accept that he is going thru a lot or is my happiness
more important than a person I know to be leaving this world soon? How do I
make this kind of decision that will affect both of us for the rest of his
short life or however long I have on earth? This is a good way for me to put
these 6 propositions in to effect how to bring them to the table and help us if
there is any way to get pass the negative behavior by both of us. We both have
to accept the fact that we may only have a short time together and embrace this
fact appreciate what we have together or we will both be miserable to the day
he dies. This is a hard thing to do accept that someone in my life that is so
important to me is not going to be here but it is what life is about. We have
such short time on this earth we need to make the most out of it.

I hope this is what you
were looking for. I just needed some kind of outlet and today was one of those
days that I needed it the most. Sorry for it being late. But I am just glad
that I have more tools of my own to help me with my daily struggle and if he is
willing hopefully I can work with Dontay in using these tools to accept both of
our futures.

reproduce with 10-2 CFU/mL. For yogurt samples, the

reproduce inside the host’s cells and is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens. The LAMP method of Listeria monocytogenes established in this study has good specificity and sensitivity, which can be applied to the rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes. Acetic acid bacteria can contaminate food. Acetobacter aceti is a subgroup of acetic acid bacteria.  It is usually isolated from yogurt. A. aceti should be timely and effectively detected to prevent yogurt contamination. In a study which performed to detect acetic acid bacteria in yogurt. LAMP, PCR, and real-time PCR were applied and compared for detecting A. aceti from pure culture and artificially contaminated yogurt samples assume that in pure culture, LAMP showed the highest detection sensitivity with 10-2 CFU/mL. For yogurt samples, the sensitivity limit of LAMP was 102 CFU/mL, which was lower than that of real-time PCR (101 CFU/mL). The results indicated that these methods could be quickly and efficiently applied to detect A. aceti. As LAMP technology has low cost and high detection efficiency, it can potentially be applied for detecting A. aceti in production and quality control programs of yogurt.   15.Environmental testing:   Cryptosporidiosis can cause disease. It has major public health concern. Genotypically and phenotypically diverse Cryptosporidium species are responsible for these disease. The impact on water and food in the epidemiology of this disease is well determined. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) procedure for the detection of Cryptosporidium in environmental and fecal samples is developed and evaluated. LAMP can be a potential diagnostic tool which can examine Cryptosporidium spp. in samples for clinical laboratories and water industries due to its simplicity, specificity, and cost-effectiveness. Rapid detection of airborne pathogen are very important for disease prevention and public safety. It also indicate the biological air pollution. In a study, a microfluidic system is established that could capture and enrich airborne pathogens in high-throughput LAMP analysis. Five species of bacteria show good stability and specificity for this method. Approximate detection limit down to 24 cells per reaction is achieved for Staphylococcus aureus,without the process of DNA purification. 16.Plant species identification in food:   An application of LAMP methods which can detect closely related plant species in food or feed matrices has been established, In a study, LAMP-based methods for plant species identification with respect to method parameters such as R2, LOD, and LOQ is evaluated. An existing (real-time) PCR method (for the detection of spices) is used for comparison in this study. It could be shown that the developed LAMP methods have potential as alternative strategies to PCR in DNA-based analysis. 17.SNP typing:   LAMP method is highly specific. So it can be used in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. Only the target gene will be amplified from gene samples containing homologous nucleotide sequences when using LAMP-based SNPs typing. LAMP method can distinguish a single nucleotide difference at each cycling step of the DNA replication because of its reaction characteristics, through both “sense and anti-sense strand” reactions, LAMP can easily detected SNP in a single step.. LAMP method is very simple and rapid. For that, SNPs typing is detected within 30 minutes.4 primers designed to recognize 6 distinct regions, so they amplify only the target gene is strictly and specifically .LAMP can detect SNP even in coexistence with its h   homologous gene. The reaction is so specific so that single nucleotide difference is strictly discriminated. The SNPs typing can be performed by in a single step. In figure (16) basic principal of SNP typing with LAMP is illustrated.                                                Figure (16): LAMP based SNP typing                                             18.Application in agricultural sector:   It is very necessary to develop a rapid and precise method that can diagnose rice viruses in host plants and in vector insects. It is very important to control rice virus diseases. A reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay, is developed. It detects nine viruses, including eight RNA viruses and one DNA virus, in infected rice plants and the viruliferous vector insects. The sensitivities of the assays are higher or similar to those of one-step RT-PCR. Rapid.  RNA extraction is done by using RNA extraction kit .It combine with RT-LAMP assay. Nine viruses are detected within 2 h from infected rice plants and the viruliferous insects. It is inexpensive and avoid delicate equipment. RT-LAMP method for rice viruses can significant for the epidemiology and molecular pathology of rice viruses study. The cry2Ab and cry3A are exogenous genes which are most important for express insect resistant protein in GM Plant .This two genes come from Bacillus thuringenesis cry protein family. Cry is widely used in genetically-modified (GM) crops. It is very important to develop an effective techniques for the rapid detection of these genes ingenetically-modified organisms (GMOs). A rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method is developed to detect the cry2Ab and cry3A genes. The LAMP assay can be finished within 60 min at an isothermal condition of a constant temperature 60-65 °C. The derived LAMP products can be obtained by a real-time turbidimeter via monitoring the white turbidity or directly observed by the naked eye through adding SYBR Green I dye. In addition, this method does not need specific expensive instruments or facilities, which can provide a simpler and quicker approach to detecting the cry2Ab and cry3A genes in GM crops. One significant fact is this method can run on-site, large-scale test purposes in the field. Bt brinjal, Bt corn, Bt sugarcane can be used efficiently in this method. Verticillium dahliae is a fungal plant pathogen. It causes verticillium wilt in many plant species, causing leaves to curl and discolor. It may cause death in some plants. All over the world there are 400 plant species that can be affected by Verticillium .  A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been developed and evaluated for the rapid and sensitive detection of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. LAMP primers design based on a known RAPD marker, No DNA purification step is needed. This assay is applied on V. dahliae grown on medium and from soil samples. In a study ,the detection ratios of LAMP protocols were better (26 positive samples out of 32 agricultural soils analysed, respectively) than that obtained for nested-PCR method (22 positive results). Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a cucumber fruit fly is one of the most destructive agricultural pests which attack mainly fruits of Cucurbitaceae. This pest is widespread and highly invasive; thus,. So It is a high priority for pest detection and quarantine programs.Although ,using morphological keys ,cucumber fruit fly adults can be identified and distinguished from the other species. But it is often difficult to distinguish this species from the other tephritids that share host plants by using material from other stages of development. So a quick and efficient alternative species diagnostic tool would be valuable for this. (PCR-LAMP) is a combined method of LAMP with PCR , present for the rapid detection and discrimination of cucumber fruit fly DNA from some other common tephritid species attacking Cucurbitaceae, using material from different stages of development. The method is species-specific and sensitive and provide a rapid diagnostic tool to detect D. ciliaus even it can be run by non-experts. Pythium species can cause diseases in economically important plant. It have been frequently found to cause diseases in soilless greenhouse systems. Pythium can contaminate irrigation water supplies. It also spread rapidly in hydroponically grown crops. Early infection by Pythium species causes yield losses in many vegetables and ornamental crops. Pythium myriotylum Drechsler is a causal agent of root rot in economically important crops including peanuts, tomato, rye, wheat, oats, cucumber, soya bean, sorghum, tobacco, cabbage and maize. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction for the detection of Pythium myriotylum is present. The primer set targeting the ITS sequence of  P. myriotylum .which work most efficiently at 60°C and allowed Detection of DNA can be performed within 30 min by fluorescence monitoring using a real-time PCR instrument. LAMP can detect P. myriotylum in hydroponic solution samples, and the results are very similar with conventional plating method in almost all cases. Grape downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, can cause Grape downy mildew. It is one of the most important diseases of grapes worldwide. The pathogen can infect all green parts of the vine when the environment is warm and wet in the growing season. After years of extremely favorable environmental conditions, 80% of yield reduction may be observed. Chemical control is the effective solution for grape downy mildew. Although, these chemicals often alert use in absence of infection. So the extreme use of chemicals may occur environment pollution and can also reduce grape quality. Rapid and sensitive detection techniques for monitoring the presence and severity of infection would help growers to apply chemicals with more accuracy and at a higher efficiency, without the risk of crop loss. A LAMP-based assay is developed for the specific detection of  P. viticola in infected leaves and the airborne sporangia collected from a spore trap. The use of the visual colorimetric indicator hydroxy naphthol blue for the in-tube detection of DNA amplification as well as simplified methods for the preparation of amplifiable target DNA. It may widely improve disease management in the grape industry by allowing the pathogen to be monitored and making analyses easier and more cost effective. The P. viticola ITS sequence (DQ665668.1) was chosen as the target region for the LAMP primers. For purified DNA, LAMP was at least 100 fold more sensitive than conventional PCR in this process. Fusarium graminearum, is a plant pathogen. It fusarium head blight on wheat and barley. The pathogen is responsible for billions of dollars of economic losses in worldwide every year. (LAMP) procedure use to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. There is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The method do not take not more than one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective. So it may be a alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) bacteria cause potato zebra chip (ZC) disease in potato and make million dollars loss in potato industry. PCR can be used for identification of Candidatus Liberibacter. But that requires agarose gel electrophoresis for resolution, on the other hand the positive LAMP results can be visualized directly as a precipitate within the reaction tubes. The 16S rDNA gene of “Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum” use as the target for the design of the six LAMP primers. The LAMP technique is a reliable, rapid, and cost-effective method. It can detects  the “Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum” pathogen in the potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, and in field-grown potato plants and tubers in high specificity.   19.Herbal medicine identification:   Identification of medicinal plant ingredients is important for drug industry. It also ensure safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) can identify herbal medicine species very efficiently.   23.Future aspects of LAMP:   LAMP may spread in the field level of molecular biology and under privileged laboratories all over the world near future because of its cost effectiveness, high specificity, rapidity, without problem of inhibitor and successful amplification of DNA from a few copies. It will make forensic DNA test much easier and inexpensive. LAMP testing kits on microchip may use in future in both developed and developing countries. 24.Discussion:   In 1953, the discovery of DNA was a breakthrough in the field of biological science. After that various technique related with detection and amplification of nucleic acid were invented. In 1985 PCR has invented as a revolutionary technique in molecular biology which is a rapid and simple technique that can produce large number copies of DNA copies from minute amount of DNA. . Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a versatile technique in molecular biology that can amplify DNA an isothermal condition. For some significant reason LAMP become a superior technique than PCR in various field of molecular biology. In LAMP, the amplification efficiency is extremely high withstand it is noticeably cost effective. LAMP do not need any thermal cycler and performed in heat block or water bath in a single tube with only two steps. Post purification step and highly pure DNA do not requires for LAMP method. These make LAMP a very impressive and potential method for developing and under developed country, because of costly instrument and highly trained personnel are tough to bear in their resource limited laboratory, specifically laboratory use for disease diagnosis purpose. LAMP can be performed on site of agriculture field for identifying specific plant pathogen and in water reservoir for detecting the pollution of water by biological substances very rapidly. So it make LAMP farmer friendly and according to spirit of age technique. LAMP uses four primers which can detect six region of gene. It makes LAMP extremely specific and highly sensitive even more than PCR in several cases. Another fact is about the analysis of LAMP reaction product. LAMP reaction produced amplicons possible to detect without use of gel electrophoresis, only with naked eye and turbidity. LAMP rapidity and high specificity make it remarkable for infectious pathogen detection in human. It work for both DNA and RNA and do not bother about matrix inhibitor. So LAMP’s accuracy of detection is more than conventional PCR and also give false positive result less than PCR. Therefore, LAMP method paves a new way to diagnose pathogenic microorganism and parasite in clinical laboratories. It can amplify from DNA a few copies of DNA. It is possible to early detection of pathogen and parasite with both rapidly and inexpensively by LAMP. So it can be a life savior techniques for human. Genetically modified organism (GMO) is a most popular word in science world nowadays. LAMP is proved as a very efficient technique to detect inserted gene in field level plants in a large scale. It is very easy technique to determine horizontal foreign gene transfer, transferred inserted gene in wild type. LAMP also have some noticeable drawbacks. This method do not work for unknown sequence. Although, complication related with primer designing is reducing because of several primer design software and tools are available and enriching day by day. Consequently, it will be speculated that, in near future LAMP method will become more precise and expanded in molecular biology and clinical laboratory and the application also increase day by day. 25.Conclusion:   LAMP method is a blessings for developing countries at molecular biology sector. Even it uses very successfully in developed countries because of disease diagnosis proficiency, agricultural application and cost effectiveness. It is obligatory to execute LAMP method is resource limited laboratories.    

On for what I believe in. The belief

On Saturday January 21, 2017 the first women’s march was held. It took place the day after our 45th president, Donald J. Trump, was inaugurated. Over five million people world wide protested against Trump’s plans and comments in the march. They also protested about equality between men and women. There were chants, signs, and speeches that objected the new president’s actions. Exactly a year after Trump being sworn in, the second annual Women’s March was held. Attending this year’s march was a powerful and life-changing experience. My grandmother had been planning to take me to this protest for a while. She wanted me to know early on to stand up for what I believe in. The belief that I stood up for in this march was equality between men and women. Before the march, we attended gatherings where we made signs in light of our protest and knitted our own pink cat hats to wear to the march. Wearing pink hats has become a tradition in Women’s Marches. The idea sprang from one of Trump’s inappropriate comments.I attended the march, this last Saturday, in Santa Ana where 20,000 other bright people also protested. We all lined up in a blocked off street while listening to empowering speeches that reminded us of why we were there, to march for women’s rights and equality. Once the march actually started, chants started breaking out. “We want a president, not a creepy tweeter”, said a younger teenage girl who started one of the most popular chants in the march. The whole experience of the march was very empowering and helped me realize I’m not the only female who thinks Trump can say whatever he wants. After the march, a rally was held where there were dances and speeches from young girls who attended the nearby high school, Santa Ana High. The dances were to songs they had made that were talking about how Trump had affected them for the worse. The songs also showed their opinions on the dictatorship that is in our world today. This was very meaningful to me because I feel the same way. At the rally, protests started breaking-out. Trump supporters shared their opinions on the situation, in a different manner then we had before. Once protests had started, we moved to the other side of the rally and sat down in a grassy area. I hung out with my neighbors who had also attended with us and we enjoyed some fruit and chips. While on the grass, people in orange vests started walking around, allowing people who were not registered to vote to register. I was surprised with how many people did, 650. Once the rally had ended, we started heading to the car and all sat in silence as we drove. After about ten minutes, Audrey, the eight-year old broke the silence and asked where we were going for lunch. Meraloma Cafe. We all ate some delicious food and talked about how we felt about the march. I personally felt empowered and like my life had changed. Overall, the 2018 Women’s March was very empowering and enlightening experience that opened up my mind and allowed me to release my anger towards the rude remarks that have been made by not only Trump, but by a lot of people in power. I also felt safe enough to share my opinion on inequality with complete strangers. Somehow, I felt that I had a strong bond with everyone at the march, even though I was not even able to meet a quarter of them. I am very pleased with my experience of the march and can’t wait till next years.  

The learn! I believe he set the

 The prophet Brigham Young stated” We are in the school of mortality and keep learning, and we do not expect to cease learning while we live on earth and when we pass through the veil we expect still to continue to learn and increase our fund of information. That may appear a strange idea to some but it is for the plain and simple reason that we are not capacitated to receive all knowledge at once. We must therefore receive a little here and a little there.”  The prophets love for the gospel I believe is what led him to an unending love to learn! I believe he set the example for us all in our ventures to learn throughout our mortal lives. It is why we are here, to learn and expand our minds. Over the course of my life, my flame to learn has not always been there. As life has gone on, through my experiences and understanding I have learned to love it!  In D&C 93: 36 it sates “The glory of God is intelligence”.  Many of us are quick to think that intelligence is often times how smart people are, but may I suggest that in this scripture God intends the contrary. David O MCkay taught that ” learning “for which the Church stands . . . is the application of knowledge to the development of a noble and Godlike character.” God has put us in this probationary state so that we would have the means and the enviroment for this exact purpose!  Everything that we learn here in mortality only contributes to gods divine purpose. This understanding has brought me much new light! We are here to grow, and that first step in that process is learning. I love the process of learning and the benefits that come from attaining knowledge. My mission has since opened my eyes to want more, and all that I am capable of learning . It has enabled me to have a more concious awareness in the world we live in today, but also to have a better understanding of the world around us.  I look forward to attending BYU where I can enrich myself and take full advantage of my education in all aspects!

1.1 it operate partly In the modern.in other



Jacques Derrida is one
of the most significant and brilliant French philosophers of the twentieth century.
It is not possible today to be a well-educated intellectual without knowing at
least something about Derrida and the way of reading most closely related with
him namely Deconstruction. Since the concept of deconstruction is closely
associate with post-modern thought, it is necessary to have knowledge about
what it is mean by the term ‘postmodern’.


The term ‘postmodern’
understood as something that distinguishes the contemporary scene from the
modern. Thus the postmodern signals the end of the modernity but it operate
partly In the modern.in other words it postmodern marks  differences within the modern and calls for an
alternative to modern. “Post modernism can be recognized by two key
assumptions. First, the assumption that there is no common denominator- in
‘nature’ or ‘truth’ or ‘God’ or ‘future’ which guarantees either the oneness of
the world or the possibility of neutral or objective thought. Second, the
assumption that all human systems operate like language, being self-reflexive rather
than referential systems. Which means all the systems construct and maintain
meaning and value itself.”1 Most
philosophers use the word ‘postmodernism’ to refer to a movement that developed
in the France in the 1960swhich is also called post structuralism. This
movement denies the possibility of objective knowledge of the real world and
univocal understanding of words and texts. They rejected most of the
fundamental pillars of the modern western thought.  


The term
‘Deconstruction’ which is one of the postmodern thought, proceeds largely from
the works of Jacques Deridda. It is the main thread of Derrida’s theory of
knowledge. It is developed in his book, ‘Of Grammatology ‘which was written in
1967. To him the reader is the first bearer of the meaning of a written or a
spoken word. Thus the reader is getting freed from the preconceived ideas of
the author and representations inherent in the text. Deconstruction denotes
whole set of techniques and strategies used by Derrida to destabilize the
‘applied ideals’ in the text. Thus Deconstruction is both theory and practice
and applies most specifically to a mode of reading texts. Deconstruction is a
method that can in theory applied to any sort of discipline or cultural
product. Thus it is a way of looking things from different perspectives.


Deconstruction as a mode of
interpretation works by a careful and circumspect entering of each textual
labyrinth. Deconstructive critic tries to find out the thread in the text which
will unravel it all. In other words they seek the loose stone which will pull
down the whole building. It involves subversion of a structure and the
dispersion of closing the meaning. Thus it is really an invitation for
interpretation. “The deconstruction, rather, annihilates the ground on which the
building stands by showing that the text has already annihilated the ground
knowingly or unknowingly. Deconstruction is not a dismantling of the structure
of a text but a demonstration that the text has already dismantled in itself.”2   


There is a poem named
‘The Road Not Taken’ which was written by Robert Frost. Here in this poem, the
poet arrives at a place where the road diverged into two the one is commonly
used by everyone and the other is less travelled one. The poet selects the
latter and succeeds. It shows the courage of the poet to move differently and
his attitude of looking things from a different perspective. What we are seeing
in the life of Jesus Christ is the same. Born, live think and died differently.
In the present society majority move in the same way, think in the same
pattern. And see in the single dimension. In such a situation by understanding
and acquiring the method of deconstruction, I hope, I can develop different
perspectives in my outlooks. It is not for the sake of a difference but for the
sake of goodness.


Here, in this thesis, I
would like to make a detailed study about Derrida’s concept of Deconstruction.
For the better understanding and detailed presentation of the concept

The entire work is going to be divided
into four chapters: The first chapter deals with introduction which includes
the relevance of the work, Biographical sketch of the Jacques Deridda and the
original context in which the theme deconstruction emerged. The Second chapter
will give a detailed study of the theme deconstruction.in which, we will
discuss the meaning of the deconstruction, influences in the development of the
concept and its impacts on various other disciplines. The third chapter is set
apart for a critical and creative synthesis of the deconstruction in the in the
present social and literary context. 



Jacques Derrida was
born on 15th July 1930 in el-biar near algeries in France. It was in
the same place he continued his studies until high school. In 1950 he began the
study of philosophy at Lycee Louis-le-Grandin masille. There he came into
contact with thinkers like Althusse. P.Bourdieu, Michel Foucault and serres. He
wrote his thesis under the guidance of Jean Hyppolite on “the problem of
genesis in Husserl.”  In 1956, he went to
Harvard University in Cambridge in order to consult the unpublished microfilms
of Husserl. In 1957-1959 he began to teach French and English In army school in
algiers.in 1960, he became the teacher at Lycee of Le Mans. Then he started to
teach at Sorbonne University in Paris. It was in the year 1962, He published
his first work translation and introduction to Husserl’s origin of geometry.
After the independence of Algeria his family moved to France in the year 1963.


At the age of 37 he published three
major works namely speech and phenomena, writing and difference, and of
grammatology. The main writings of Derrida influenced by three different
intellectual currents of the 20th century. They are phenomenology,
structuralism and psychoanalysis.in the year 1975 he created the GREPH: research
group of public education. After the age of sixty Derrida began to write his
own life. He prepared autobiographical circumfession
in the year1991 in collaboration
with Geoffrey Bennigton. Along with this he wrote memorials of others who have
influenced him namely Paul De Man Roland Barthes, S. Bachelard, P. Ricoeur,
Gilles Deleuze, Micheal Foucault, Jean Francois Lyotard, Emmanuel Levinas,
Jacques Lacan etc. He died of cancer in the year 2004. The main works of Derrida


Husserl’s Origin of Geometry: An Introduction. (1962)

and phenomena and other essay’s on Husserl’s theory of signs. (1967)

Grammatology. (1967)

and Difference. (1967)


of Philosophy. (1972)


Spirit: Heidegger and the Question (1987)




thoughts were emerged as a reaction to the existing modern thoughts of that
period. In order to understand the postmodern thought deconstruction it is
necessary to have a knowledge of its background that is nothing but modernity. The
term ‘modern’ derived from the Latin ‘modo’, simply means “of today” or what is
current, as distinguishing from earlier times.3
The term modernity encompasses the outcomes of all events from sixteenth
century such as protestant reformation, scientific revolution of Galileo,
political theories that were developed after the revolution in France and United
States and industrial revolution. Politically speaking it refers to major upheavals
that marked the late middle ages such as renaissance, reformation, the
colonization and the formation of the nation- states. From a cultural stand
point, the concept of modernity means a fundamentally new way to structure all
social relation that developed in the west in the late eighteenth and early
nineteenth century. The human relations were governed by the principle of
equality. The individual became scared and disregard all that went beyond his rationality.
The efficiency, utility and productivity became the law of social life. In the
field of religion, modernity became antithetical to religious belief and the
revelation considered as a human invention. God was interpreted as something
that of a human invention. The religion was repressed and privatized. The religious
authorities lost their status.   In philosophically speaking, it was based on
the linking of transcendental subjectivity and empirical objectivity. It is a
method of understanding the truth by way of entering into the depth of reality
than looking its mere surface and appearance. Thus emerged the phenomenology,
psychoanalysis and logical positivism which rejected all knowledge that cannot
be verified logically or empirically.


can consider modernity as a civilization which was founded on the basis of
scientific and rational knowledge. Thus it is the reason that ruled over
modernity. The main modern thoughts which influenced the Derrida in the
formulation of the concept deconstruction includes Edmund Husserl’s
phenomenology, Ferdinant de Saussure’s structuralism
and Jacques Lacan’s observation on the Freudian psychoanalysis. Thus it is
necessary to have a knowledge about these concepts even before entering into
Derrida’s deconstruction    


Husserl Edmund is considered to be
the founder of phenomenology. In the opening years of twentieth century
phenomenology was force to be reckoned with.it is considered to be the reason
for the emergence of many other philosophical movements such as existentialism,
structuralism postmodernism etc. Derrida himself started his publishing career with
a critique of a certain aspects of phenomenology. “Husserl, major founder of
phenomenology, described it as the true positivism, aiming to return ‘to things
       Phenomenology is intended the study of
essence. It is also attempts to place the essence back into the existence.it is
a transcendental philosophy interested only in what is ‘left behind’ after
phenomenological reduction is performed. Husserl says much about philosophical
thinking. He distinguishes between natural attitude and phenomenological
attitude. Natural attitude is our straight forward involvement with things and
the world. When we enter the phenomenological attitude we put out of action or
suspend all intentions and convictions of the natural attitude. This does not
mean that we doubt or negate them but only that we take a distance from them
and contemplate their structure. Husserl calls this suspension the
phenomenological ‘epoch.’ In our human life we begin the natural attitude and
the process in which we move to the phenomenological attitude is called
phenomenological reduction. It is a process of leading back from the natural
beliefs to the reflective consideration of the intentions and their objectives.
In the phenomenological attitude we look at the intentions those that function
anonymously in our straight forward involvement with the world.



Structuralism has its origins in
the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinant de Saussure (1857-1913). He had lectures
in at the University of Geneva. Based on those lectures he published a book
called ‘courses in general linguistics’. It provided structuralism’s basic
methodological insights. It was Russian – born Ranan jackobson first used the
term structuralism. “In the structuralist view what had been called a literary
“work” becomes a text; that is,a mode of writing constituted by a play of
internal elements according to literary conventions and codes.”5    It is difficult to describe structuralism as
a movement, because of the methodological constraints exercises by the various
disciplines that came to be influenced by structuralism such as anthropology,
philosophy, political theory and even mathematics. Arguing against the
prevailing historical and philosophical approach to linguistics, He proposed a
scientific model of language- closed system of elements and rules that accounts
for the production and social communication of the meaning. Saussure viewed
language as the repository of discursive signs shared by a given linguistic
community. The particular sign is composed of two elements, a distinctive sound
element and corresponding meaning. The defining relation between the signs and
meaning components is based on conventional association and not due to any
function of speaking subject’s personal inclination. Structuralism emerged in
France in the late 1950s as a response to the existentialist emphasize on subjectivity
and individual autonomy by French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss. Structuralism
replaced the author with the reader as the central agency. But the traditional
reader, as a conscious, purposeful and feeling individual replaced by an
impersonal activity of reading. What is read is not the work imbued with
meanings but writing. Thus the focus of structuralism is not the on the
sensibility of the reader but on the impersonal process of reading by taking
into consideration the conventions, codes, sequences of words and phrases which
constitutes a text.



contributions of Jacques Lacan in the area of psychoanalysis had a great
influence on the works of Derrida. Lacan’s works   derive
from his consistent and thoroughgoing interpretation of Freud’s writing in the
light of Heidegger, Hegel as well as structuralist linguistics. Lacan’s theory
of mirror stage is his first contribution in the field of psychoanalysis. According
to Lacan ego is an effect of an identification with an image that represents an
ideal of unity and completeness and that is not the ego itself. The ego is thus
characterised by an alienation that cannot be undone.6 Lacan
proposed Freudianism in which any traces of the substantial Cartesian self are
replaced by a system of symbolic function.Contrary to standard views , the ego
is a imaginery projection, not our accees to the real7



The term
‘postmodern’ understood as distinguishing the contemporary scene from the
modern. The term was first used in 1917 by the German philosopher Rudolf
pannwitz to describe the ‘nihilism’ which was written in the book of Friedrich
Nietzche. It appeared again in the work of the Spanish literary critic Federico
de Onis in 1934 to refer to the backlash against literary modernism. It was
understood in two different ways in English in 1939. Theologian  Bernard Iddings bell used it to mean the
recognition of the failure of secular modernism and a return to religion.
Historian Arnold Toynbee used the same to mean the post- World War I rise of
mass society in which the working class surpasses the capitalist class. Then it
appeared in the literary criticism in 1950s and 1960s. In philosophy it came to
refer primarily to French poststructuralist philosophy, and secondarily to a
general reaction against modern rationalism, utopianism and foundationalism.
Thus it is very clear that the same term postmodern is used to designate the
different events happened in various ages in history such as: the breakdown of
modern art and architecture; change of rules and norms of writing in the
literature; collapse of meta-narratives like Marxism, Rationalim,Secularism and
Nominalism; disqualification of rationality; loss of confidence in scientific
knowledge;advent of pluralism and finally eco-centrism.

            Jacqes Derrida, one of the post modern thinker comes in
the stream of this period. The concept deconstruction as a product of post
modern thinking emerged in this background. 

E. Craig, “postmodernism,”  Rout ledge Encyclopaedia of philosophy, 587

2  J. Wolfreys, Deconstruction. Derrida  (New
York: Macmillan publishers, 1998) 12

3  L. Cahoone, From Modernism to Postmodernism (Oxford: Blackwell publishers, 1996)

4 C. Howells, Derrida
Blackwell publishers, 1998) 7.

M.H Abrams – G.G
Harpham, A Glossary of Literary Terms (Delhi:
Cenage Learning, 2015) 381.

6 Encyclopedia
of philosophy, Donald M. Borchert. Vol.5,

7 The camgridge dictionary of philosophy Robert audicambridge press