Article changes, urbanization andsocial problems that appeared in

Article 1: The changes of social structure and migration in cities inAlbaniaMatilda Likaj Lecturer, Faculty of Economics and AdministrativeSciences, Epoka University.Cemal Baltac? Assist Prof. Dr., Faculty of Economics andAdministrative Sciences, EpokaUniversity.1) The main issues disscused in this paper are the political and social changes, urbanization andsocial problems that appeared in Albanian society after 1990’s. Also the effect that have appearto social values by the change of social structure and the formation of the new conscious inAlbanian society.2) The above issue is important because urbanization takes an important place, not only bygetting modern standards but also it gets a growth of population and changes in many structureof societies. Many times in social science like sociology concept of urbanization is called as adynamic structure that gets physical and social changes. Changes that come from urbanization,affect all structure of society like norms, values, traditions, way of life etc.After 1990s in Albaniastarted major changes in the social, cultural, politic and economic structures. This process wasaffected from a new and modern civilization and also was called as transition.3) There is a detailed and easy to understand literature review presented in this study. Thisissue first started with the Collapse of the Berlin’s wall, which gave courage to Albanianintellectuals and students to protest for the collapse of communism system and to get newpolitical, socialand cultural system. After 1990s in Albania started major changes in the social, cultural, politicand economic structures. This process was affected from a new and modern civilization andalso was called as transition. A part of transition was migration and emigration waves. Thesekind of waves were causing form the collapse of communisms laws (In communism wasforbidden to pass form a country, city, village to another one without having a strongreason).People needed something new in their life style and they tried to find it by changing theplace where they lived.4) The method used starts by explaining the begining of the protests, when and and whythey started in the first place, and by who. Then it gives us a deffinition of”Urbanization”, what is it and what are it’s effects. Also it analyses Migration of Peoplefrom Rural to Urban Places and The Changes of Values.5) Urbanization in Albania have brought many changes in the Albanian society. Changes that comefrom urbanization, affect all structure of society like norms, values, traditions, way of life etc.Urbanization gets a renovation of a social structure by changing social structure.Most of valuesthat were formed in the communism system started become old and unimportant value. .Afterthe collapsed of communism Albanian cultures were so influenced from Italian and WesternEuropean cultures. These cultures influenced almost at the all institutions, relationships betweenpeople, lifestyles, mentality of people etc. One of the structures that changed from the transitionin Albania was the family structure. In a family are founded more than twogeneration with different mentality. This difference was expressed by values that many time gotconflict between generations.ARTICLE 2: Urbanization of Post-communist Albania: Economic,Social, and Environmental ChallengesDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern EuropeDorina Pojani The University of Queensland1) The purpose of this article is to describe some of the critical urban and social transformations inAlbania since the fall of communism in 1990 and their economic, social, and environmentalconsequences, and to respond to some of the negative views about the greatly increasedurbanization. This article discusses the benefits as well as harms of urbanization in Albania andargues that, in balance, urbanization is a positive force.2) The above issue is important because in Albania, policymakers, urban planners, theorists,and the general public haveunderstandably been very concerned with the speed and magnitude of urban growth in Albania,especially of Tirana, and typically perceive it as negative. Urban developments are commonlyreferred to in the press as “the urban massacre.”3) There is a extended and really detailed literature review in this article. The introductionpresents the problem of the urbanization and gives some reasons why it happens. First, it was anexpression of a long-standing desire to move to urban areas, which was repressed in the past bycommunist era controls on mobility. Second, in the post-communist years many villagesand towns were depleted of professional services.Third, in many regions, people were forced toleave rural areas in order to survive. However it seems that this article argues that urbanization isa positive form because it analyses some positive factors that urbanization have had in outcountry.4) The article starts with some general information about the urbanization in its begginings.Then it reveals data about how the population have moved from rural to urban zone, followedby detailed analysis of the factors that have affect in urbanization, and then the effect thaturbanization itself had in Albania.5) Albania’s rapid urbanization has been central to its post-communist transformation to amarket economy and democratic government. Albania’s larger cities and its capital in particularhave definite advantages over rural areas and small towns, which outweigh the disadvantages.Meanwhile, urbanization has contributed to a host of problems. These emerging problems areinherent to the very nature of urbanization. Poor governance and a negative attitude tonewcomers and their impact on urban growth partially explain why urbanization has not been anexclusively positive development in Albania. Other reasons include poverty and the impact ofurbanization on traditional social structures. Solutions are not simple; nor are there readilyavailable models from other countries that Albanian cities could adopt.Article 3: Migration as a Challenge for Albanian Post CommunistSocietyPh.D Cand. Matilda LikajDepartment of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Bedër University, Tirana, Albania e-mail:[email protected]) The objectives of this articles are going to be focus on analyze of internal and internationalAlbanian migration during post communist period till nowadays. During analyze of thisphenomena is going to take into consideration social changes, social capital and its effect on theAlbanian society challenges. . Also this article discusses Albanian migration phenomena andanalyzes its effects of social changes and social capital in society.2) This issue is important because the process of migration, both internal and international one,has increasingly been seen asinvolving economic, political and demographic changes, as well as processes of urbanization andmodernization. Migration has profound social, cultural and economic consequences forindividuals, families, communities, society, regions and the country as a whole. The effect ofmigration is reflected in the population decreasing and the massive urbanization of some areasand de-urbanization of others, increased differentiations among social and economicalstratifications that reflect to the integration of migrants, dynamic changes in the gender and theage or demography of the population.3) There is a detailed literature review on this article. Two are the main research questionsexplained in this article: 1) Migration Phenomena and its Challenges in Home Society, sayingthat migration is a very complex phenomena in the perspective of socio-cultural and economiclife. Human migration is the movement of people from one country to another for the purpose oftaking up permanent or semi permanent residence, usually across a political boundary.2) Albanian Migration: Its Effects on Social Changes and Social Capital in Society, where itexplains that migration, whether rural to urban or international, has emerged as the mostcommon livelihood coping strategy in Albania, and has served as an important escape valve forunemployment and other economic difficulties brought on by the transition to a market economy4) The method used strats with giving a short historical information about the comunism inBallkan and how Albania was influenced by it. Followed by information related to the processof migration: what causes migration, and what migration itself causes, what are its effects? Thenit analysis to main research questions such as 1) Migration Phenomenia and 2) AlbanianMigration. They both cause changes and affect the society of one country but not only.5) Migration (in and out of Albania) involves a series of events that can be challenge for society.Sometimes, the process involves uprooting, being separated from traditional values, beingplaced in new social and cultural different situations of society. Also these changes may beappearing in the huge social changes and the fade of social capital of social structure. Migrationphenomena impact s also on the reorganization of social structure. The flow of young people asa work force outside Albania leads to the lack of population dynamism and anomies in thesocio-cultural structure of Albania.ARTICLE 4 : Albanian migration during the post communisttransition and the European integration in global era.An intercultural reflectionDott. Agim Leka, PhD Candidate University “A Xhuvani”, Elbasan,Albania Member of Parliament , Albania1) Miiigration is a human experience, which has arisen and developed in relation to thehuman society itself. In our era, immigration is associated with the integration and theglobalization. Immigration is a modern intercommunications between cultures in a worldincreasingly with more multicultural, or in a world with a hybrid culture. Therefore migration isthe most highlighted issue in this article since it affects us in many different ways.2) The above issue is important because the migration is a part of existence and the history ofAlbanian. The migration, has been started at least in the xi century. In xiv-xv century theAlbanian emigration had assumed as an exodus. The biggest wave of migration of Albanianpeople happened after death of the Albanian national hero Gjergj Kastrioti (Scanderbeg)(1468-1744). After the creation of the independent Albanian modern state (28 November1912) the migration flows of Albanians continued.3) The literature review presented in this study is too detailed. It gives us many information andalso data and tables where there are specific information about what causes emigration andmigration flows across the world. It also has many quotations from different individs. Besidesthat, this article analysis migration adn emigration from its roots, when it first started in1468-1744, after the death of Skanderbeg.4) The method used starts with providing information about emigration as a subject study ofTransitology, followed by a short history of Albanian emigration, which explains the times whenmigration first started. It also gives us data on what causes emigration. The most disscusedphenomens are: The Albanian emigrants durin the trasition times, The integration of Albanianemigrants, and Integration as a cultural intercommunication.ARTICLE 5 : Population Association of America annual meeting2016, Washington D.C. Session 14: New Directions in MigrationResearchInternal and international migrations across the urbanhierarchy in AlbaniaMathias LerchMax Planck Institute for Demographic ResearchKonrad-Zuse-Str. 1,18057 Rostock – [email protected]) This article aims to analyse internal and international movements across the urban hierarchyand the urban-rural continuum in post-communist Albania, in order to increase understanding ofpopulation mobility. Results reveal a large-scale onset of rural-to-urban migration, despite thecrisis in the 1990s. Internal migrants focused towards peripheral cities and the capital, bypassingsecondary centers.2) This issues is important because post-Communist Albania experienced a rapid catch up inurbanization and large-scale emigration from both rural and urban areas (Azzari and Carletto2009; Lerch 2014). We adopt a longitudinal and geographical sending-country perspective totest the hypothesis of mobility transition (Zelinsky 1971). This model predicts an increase andsubsequent decrease in rural-to-urban and international movements (hereafter also referred toas out-/in-migration and e- /immigration, respectively) during the modernization process.3) Almost the entire literature review in this article is associated with data and quotations. Thisarticle gives us detailed information about migration and emigration in post – comunist Albania.4) The method used starts with providing general information about the issues caused byemigration and migration. Followed by information about The Albanian context, The mobilitytransition and its mediating factorys, Data and Methods etc.All these analysis give us a better idea for migration and emigration and their effects in Albaniansociety but not only.5) In order to contribute to the understanding of the process of Albania’s urbanization, weinvestigated the diffusion of both types of migrations across the urban hierarchy and the sexes,using retrospective survey data. The country is an interesting case to test the hypothesis ofmobility transition because of its sharp increase in population mobility during the post-communistcrisis, as well as its continuous urbanization and emigration in the subsequent period ofeconomic and political consolidation.

Jagriti girl who works as a waitress with

Jagriti Yadav                                                                                                                                 Eng Paper 5            Comparative analysis of Dorothy Allison’s “Don’t Tell Me You Don’t Know” and                                          “I’m Working on My Charm”         Dorothy Allison’s “I’m Working on My Charm” is a story of a young sixteen-year-old girl who works as a waitress with her mother. As a young daughter coming to the same field as the mother, the mother becomes a role model here and supports and helps her daughter on becoming a good waitress. She makes sure the environment her daughter is working on is good and that she is aware of the Yankees. Yankees doesn’t see waitresses on the same level as they are. So, the mother is worried how her daughter will deal with Yankees and makes sure she knows how to handle different situations. The daughter is taught to use her charm to influence people.  Also, Mabel, her mother’s friend, teaches her how to bet on tips from customer. This story illustrates how an older person can be a guide for younger ones to be successful and accepted in the society.Allison Dorothy’s story “Don’t Tell Me You Don’t Know,” is about the relationship between the narrator and her mother and focuses on how women choose to live in abusive relationships because of factors like low economy and need for support from her husband. The narrator lives far from her relatives because she cannot see herself being bound by the society and its rules which doesn’t seem to change according to modern-day perspectives on gender roles. She hates her mom and doesn’t even call her often because she is not happy with the fact that her mom and her aunts live with their husbands who don’t respect women. She is furious because she wants the women to act against the misbehavior of their husbands. The narrator seems lamenting as well, as she herself couldn’t do much to change the situation and make it better. Her aunt Alma visit is unexpected which brings up the subject to children and this is when the narrator reveals the abuse that she suffered from her stepfather and the fact she feels that because she is homosexual, her family won’t accept her. Aunt Alma tells her of the condition her mom is living and that she needs love and care from her children at this old stage of her life. The narrator has a lengthy conversation with her aunt and she finally decide to go back home and make things better. The central idea of the story focuses on ways in which women are subjugated by men in their lives but that is only through connection and communication with other women that true healing can occur. Both stories have man vs man conflict. In this case it’s a mother or someone who is like a mother figure i.e. Aunt versus daughter conflict. In both narratives the guardians are worried about the daughters. In the story “I’m Working on My Charm” the conflict is shown when the mother says, “You’re not working any more Thursday nights” (I’m Working on My Charm). This illustrates how the mothers are preparing their daughters for their respective societies. In the story “Don’t Tell Me You Don’t Know,” Man vs man conflict can be seen when she talks with her aunt Alma and their view doesn’t seem correlating on the issues specific to society. While man vs society conflict is seen when the narrator blames how society works and how women are considered less powerful compared to men and how they depend on men for their survival. The narrator blames herself saying she didn’t try to improve the condition of her mom and aunt instead she leaves the place. The narrator could have done something or said something to her abusive father, but she didn’t, so she questions herself which shows her internal conflict.The language in both the story is minimalistic.The clear use of syntax makes it easier for people to understand and read the story. Some of the  things are not clearly stated in both stories and is left upon readers to understand. For example in “Dont Tell Me You Don’t Know” the fact that the protagonist is a homosexual is not clearly stated but is said in an indirect way. Both stories have sad and convincing tone. In both stories we see how girls are always not seen equally competent as boys. In “Don’t Tell Me You Don’t Know” the main character is living away from her family as she is not happy with how her aunt and mom basically the women are treated in a household. Same goes in the story “I’m Working on My Charm” where the mother is worried about how her daughter is going to deal with Yankees and she is going to be treated by others. The language and tone connects to the central idea that the older generation has much experience and younger should understand what they have to say and follow them.Works citedAllison, Dorothy, “Don’t Tell me you don’t know,” Trash: stories, Plume, 2002Allison, Dorothy. Trash: Stories. New York: Plume, 2002. Print.

Introduction and discovered how Euler’s totient can be



Euler’s number was first introduced to me when I was investigating the methods of encryption to passkeys and RSA algorithms. I was researching the methods of encrypting keys and discovered how Euler’s totient can be used to scramble the public key in a private-public key combination in order to unlock and grant access to digital spaces and logins. This interested me due to me immense fascination in online security and hacking and so I decided to discover the presence of math in encryption algorithms.  Other details about Euler suggested that he was a highly regarded mathematician in the 1700s and is responsible for many of the first proofs for conjectures and other mathematic problems. His discovery of the totient theorem and also the use of modular arithmetic will be used to discover its involvement with encryption.


Euler’s Totient Theorem


In number theory, Euler’s totient1 theorem states that if n and a are coprime positive integers, then

a?n ? 1 (mod n)


Where ?n is Euler’s totient function

Defining Modular Arithmetic

            Modular arithmetic deals with the relationship between a repeating mathematical function, exampled popularly as a clock, where the hour hand will move around all the way to 12 and then reset to 0. This is how modular functions work as they always suggest a pattern of recurring numbers. If we have A mod B and we increase A by a multiple of B, its results in the same spot ie.  

A mod B = (A+K x B) mod B for any integer K.


3 mod 10=3

13 mod 10=3

23 mod 10=3

33 mod 10=3


A?B (mod C)

Modular arithmetic can be described mathematically by suggesting a congruence relation between integers that are compatible with the operations on integers: addition, subtraction, and multiplication. For positive integer n, two numbers a and b are said to be congruent modulo n, if the difference (a – b) is an integer multiple of n (that is, if there is an integer k such that a ? b = kn).

Euler’s Totient Function

                Euler’s totient function,2 pictured as ?n, is a collection and analysis of the numbers that are smaller than n and relatively prime to n.

For example, ?10 is 4 because there are 4 numbers that are smaller than 10 and that are relatively prime to 10. (1, 3, 7, 9). ?6 is 2 as 1 and 5 are relatively prime to 6 and 2, 3, and 4 are not.


The following operation of totients of numbers 2 through 20 it listed in the chart.










































Examples pulled from the table,

n = 10 and a = 3. Both 10 and 3 are relatively prime to each other. ?10 = 4.

If so, 34 = 81 = 1(mod 10) 

Another listed example might be n = 15 and a = 2, we can see that 28 = 256 = 1(mod 15)





Building decent work deficits in NSE in four

Building on
guidance from international labour standards and current practices observed at
the national level, this report advances policy recommendations to address
decent work deficits in NSE in four main policy areas.


1. Plugging regulatory gaps

Ensuring equal
treatment for workers in NSE is essential; it is also a way of maintaining a
level playing field for employers. Establishing minimum guaranteed hours and
limiting the variability of working schedules can provide important safeguards
for part-time, on-call and casual workers. The legislation
also needs to address employment misclassification, restrict some uses of NSE
to prevent abuse, and assign obligations and responsibilities in multi-party
employment arrangements. Efforts are needed to ensure that all workers,
regardless of their contractual arrangement, have access to freedom of
association and collective bargaining rights. Improving enforcement is also




2. Strengthening collective bargaining

bargaining can take into account particular circumstances of the sector or
enterprise and is thus well-suited to help lessen insecurities in NSE. However,
the effort is needed to build the
capacity of unions in this regard, including through the organisation and
representation of workers in NSE. Where it exists, the extension of collective
agreements to all workers in a sector or occupational category is a useful tool
to reduce inequalities for workers in NSE. Alliances between unions and other
organisations can be part of collective responses to issues of concern to
non-standard and standard workers alike.


3. Strengthening social protection

Countries should
strengthen, and sometimes adapt their
social protection systems to ensure that all workers benefit from social
protection coverage. This may include eliminating or lowering thresholds on
minimum hours, earnings or duration of employment so that workers in NSE are
not excluded, or making systems more flexible with regard to contributions
required to qualify for benefits, allowing for interruptions in contributions,
and enhancing the portability of benefits between different social security
systems and employment statuses. These changes should be complemented by
efforts to guarantee a universal social protection floor.


4. Instituting employment and social policies to manage social
risks and accommodate transitions.

policies should support full, productive and freely chosen employment,
including through public employment programmes, when needed. Unemployment
insurance programmes should cover a broader range of contingencies such as
reduced working hours during periods of economic recession, as well as
temporary absences of workers who are undergoing training. Policies to support
parental and other care leave and to facilitate transfer from full-time to
part-time work and vice versa, as well as the provision of care facilities,
help workers to reconcile work and family responsibilities.Policies are needed
to ensure that all types of work arrangements constitute decent work, as no
contractual form is immune to the ongoing transformations in the world of work.
While the years ahead will undoubtedly bring new changes, the dependence on
work for one’s livelihood and the effect of work on a person’s overall
well-being will not change. It is thus incumbent on governments, as well as
employers, workers and their organisations, through national, regional and
international efforts, to focus on these challenges in the context of the
future of work, with the goal of promoting decent work for all.

There and the excessive charges of divorce affecting

There has been an awful lot made in the media about the stress on marriage and the excessive charges of divorce affecting couples who have a baby with a developmental disability. Yet at the equal time, counter studies have been published that refute many of these claims – reporting that this information has been exaggerated and that these families do no longer have a appreciably greater divorce rate. Which of these assertions is true? In our journey working with families, we can certainly apprehend both perspectives. There is absolutely an inordinate amount of stress positioned on a marriage when a child has a disability, and we have seen marriages unravel before our eyes due to problems and stress that genuinely can’t be managed. When this happens, the consequences of divorce can be sizable and exponential: the financial pressures, stress of single-parent caregiving, impact on the infant with a incapacity who has an even harder time managing change; as well as outcomes on the typically creating teens who are already coping with having a sibling with one-of-a-kind needs. Yet we have also seen couples who parent a toddler with a incapacity with marriages that are tremendously strong: couples who “have every other’s backs,” who recognize the special pressures they each face and grant guide to one every other as they meet them. We have considered couples with an extremely good degree of emotional closeness that is fostered by way of the all-encompassing undertaking that is caring for a baby with extraordinary needs. What are some of the challenges that these marriages face? What are the household dynamics that can contribute to the stress in a marriage when there is a infant with one of a kind needs? And most importantly: what are the techniques that many couples have efficaciously utilized to radically change some of those challenges into strengths?
Financial Stress
Families who have a infant with a disability often journey high-quality financial stress due to the improved fees of therapy, treatment, exceptional diets, respite and different care. It might also additionally create a situation where one mother or father has to work overtime in the provider role, becoming certainly an absentee parent while the closing guardian assumes the caregiving role. The financially presenting parent may sense extremely forced and no longer recognize why his/her partner resents his lengthy absences, causing both dad and mom to feel misunderstood and unappreciated. Unequal caregiving responsibilities: Often one parent, (usually the mother) includes a disproportionate amount of the caregiving responsibilities. These roles may additionally be assumed through graph or they may simply evolve over time. This can appear even when financial obligations are shared. In these instances, the major caregiver will frequently sense that her/ his partner simply doesn’t “get it”- the extent of the care they need to provide, the trivia of their daily responsibilities, the stress from navigating the bureaucratic carrier delivery gadget and their personal need for some time away from caregiving. This divide can create emotional distance unless it is identified and suitable attention is focused on the wishes of each parents.
Time and Energy
There are only so many reserves of time and energy to be had, and the toddler with disabilities will in all likelihood devour all of them. There is little left over for even the commonly creating youngsters in the family, let on my own the couple. Even if the couple understands their want and proper to have time together and does no longer discover it as indulgent, it is typically not practical as caregiving issues and the needs of the baby with disabilities often get in the way. In order for this couples time to happen, family and/or community participants have to apprehend and actively work to address this issue, giving couples treasured time on my own backyard of their caregiving responsibilities to join and recharge their emotional batteries.
Differences in coping styles
Having a child with a incapacity regularly requires mother and father to renowned the loss of the infant they wished to have, and to accept and include the child they have been given. This process is now not a finite match with a opening and an end, but as an alternative continues in the course of one’s lifetime. It is regularly revisited at extraordinary ranges in the child’s improvement and in the family’s existence cycle. Often mother and father have exceptional coping patterns and do not journey this process in the identical way. One accomplice might also want extra time to technique his/her state of affairs more, more shops for verbal conversation and support, and to be extra open and direct about his/ her feelings. Another companion may also be extra personal about his feelings, might also no longer come to an acceptance at the identical price as his/ her spouse, or even at all. Some spouses have a more effective outlook while others have a hard time moving ahead from their pain. A current NY Times article, “The Psychic Toll Paid In a Special Needs House” by way of Ron Lieber, captured it well: “One person in a couple with a child whose incapacity used to be sudden may additionally have subject accepting it,” said Christoper Currin, a mother or father and economic planner who worked with divorced couples. “A deeper wellspring of love might also open up in one of them, while the different goes to that nicely and finds it empty.” In addition, spiritual variations can be highlighted, as some mother and father can strengthen their non secular trust in the face of such a challenge, while others will find themselves questioning their beliefs and/or angry about their situation. Finally, stereotypical male/female differences can also come into play. Many fathers we know have acknowledged difficulty in expressing their feelings, preferring as an alternative to problem-solve and “fix things.” They are left feeling helpless when they realize their contemporary issues can’t be “fixed.” Many moms have expressed their desire that their husbands would certainly be there for them and listen to their struggles without feeling blamed or compelled to remedy them. Successfully speaking couples want no longer necessarily have the actual same style of coping. Yet they ought to be conscious of their variations in approach, be given one another’s coping style, and periodically speak about these issues. All feelings have to be validated as legitimate, even if they fluctuate from one’s own. The parent who has a tougher time acknowledging his emotions have to not be made to feel that his fashion is much less healthy, and must be given the time and space to technique emotions at his own pace. The dad or mum who may need extra open communication, processing and emotional support, have to actively pursue different stores in order to meet that want – such as counseling, peer mentoring and assist groups. Programs that tackle some of these differences head-on can be very really helpful for families. Mothers and Fathers corporations can illuminate some of these differences and grant help in navigating them. The less communicative guardian can be taught to validate emotions and agree to set apart a small quantity of time to simply listen, if no longer talk him/herself. Parents who are successful in working thru these coping variations record “checking in” with one any other periodically about how they are doing. “Are we OK? If we are not OK, what can we do differently?” This gives them a experience of working via things as a team, even if they are no longer always on the identical web page on every issue.
Decisions involving household size
This is definitely not restricted to families who have young people with disabilities, as all couples want to be on the equal page related to these issues. Families who have children with disabilities have additional issues to consider in developing their families: caregiving obligations of the parents; burnout level of the primary caregiver; nervousness of one or both mother and father involving the fitness status of future children; the hazard of any genetic issues, if they exist, to future children; problem for unduly burdening the typically growing teenagers in the family; and more. If dad and mom are not united in their desires involving household size, it can create big resentment and feelings of alienation in one or both of them. Enhanced communication can help every apprehend the concerns and emotions of the different and come to at the same time agreed upon choices in session with their Rabbi, as deemed appropriate.
Excessive Parental Involvement
A new phenomenon that in the contemporary era of families is the immoderate involvement of grandparents. Adult dad and mom of youngsters with disabilities are generally in need of as a lot help as possible, and many grandparents grant it in the shape of financial assistance, babysitting and help navigating the provider system. The draw back to such assistance is that at instances the grandparents may also overstep boundaries and inadvertently interfere upon the parents’ authority, space or cohesion as a couple. Successful couples be given assist from their parents, while at the same time supplying a united front and maintaining parental authority and fantastic boundaries in the relationship.
One couple jokingly says that they had higher remain collectively because “no one else in the world would take us with this package!” Another couple, who locate themselves depleted after a full day of caregiving their toddler with excessive behavioral needs, have a “secret signal” to let each different know if they want help, due to the fact “we are so wiped, we can’t even appear at every other, let on my own communicate, after a day like that!”
Show appreciation
Expressing gratitude, even for the matters that one’s spouse be doing, goes a long way to reinforcing the connection between both partners.
Experience joy
Finding methods to journey pleasure as a household is essential, even if it seems very challenging to do so. Locating reachable time out destinations, packages that take into account the desires of young people with disabilities, and sensory pleasant endeavor opportunities – assist couples and youth create high quality associations and enjoyable family reminiscences which can get them thru the difficult times.
Seek support
Services, assist and as a whole lot respite as viable are not luxuries. They are necessary to keep families functioning and marriages healthful and thriving. In conclusion, couples who mum or dad adolescents with disabilities deserve compassion and appreciation of the special challenges that they face on a daily basis. Family, neighborhood members and specialists who have interaction with them, ought to attempt to furnish more guide in assembly these challenges, thereby strengthening their marriages and whole households in the process.
Tzivy Ross Reiter, LCSW-R, is a Director at Ohel Bais Ezra and an guide to Building Blocks Magazine. She has written significantly about problems related to developmental disabilities and mental health. She is also the writer of “Briefcases & Baby Bottles: The Working Mother’s Guide to Nurturing a Jewish Home; Feldheim, 2012.” With over four a long time of experience in caring for those throughout the spectrum of developmental disabilities, OHEL Bais Ezra has increased and enriched the lives of thousands of people and families. They provide mother and father a lot sought education and clear path with many reducing facet services and programs, they are able to tailor programs that meet the unique wishes of every man or woman and optimize their potential. For greater information, Call 1.800.603.OHEL web: Facebook: 

I the light and examining the shadowy forms

I blink as my eyes adapt, glancing into the
light and examining the shadowy forms that emerge in the abyss before us. The
dome is colossal, far more hollowed on the inside than it seems from without.

The walls arch away over us, kneeling almost faintly inward before disappearing
into the gloominess 

Here, MCEC contended that LH violated two disciplines,

Here, MCEC contended that LH violated two disciplines,
one is that lawyer shall not act prejudicially in Justice. The other is the ban
of extrajudicial statements by lawyers. LH asserted that the disciplines
are so vague and abroad, thus, violated 1st amendment. MCEC insisted
that according to the request by LH, the Court gave the chance LH to find any bad faith, harassment, or other extraordinary circumstance, but
there were not such things, thus, Younger abstain exceptions will not be
applied to this case. The Supreme Court decided that the issue in this case was
whether the state proceeding claims by LH as to those disciplines were related
with important state interests. The Supreme Court found that State’s controlling
the conduct of lawyers has much importance because unethical behavior of lawyers
impairs publics and society. Here, ethics committee acted for state supreme
court, which shows that the vital state interests are involved. Thus, a federal court should abstain.

Developed master schedules to establish planning and lead times for each activity • Plan and schedule activities for all different disciplines incorporating feedback from all affected parties • Lead scheduling meetings and communicate priorities based on the critical path • Create regular reports and scorecards for management • Work with staff to establish manpower requirements • Actively manage inventory levels • Create various regular reports based on performance and critical path analysis • Analyze data to find trends and efficiencies • Review manufacturing and import reports to predict inventory levels



Manage large projects across several departments
Schedule and monitor production of customer orders through plant processes
Key point person during monthly planning cycle for projecting sales and developing baseline plans
Provide regular updates on production and mill availability with management group
Help adjust day to day production schedule based on changes in customer requirements, production limitations and raw material availability
Facilitate negotiations/resolutions between production, sales, shipping and other departments
Manage and generate reports on raw material, work in progress and finished goods inventory
Manage and review planning reports for key performance indicators
Attend the forecast meetings and understand drivers, challenge assumptions and lead the team to agreement on the total demand plan
Order raw material and closely coordinate customer plans with supply planning
Perform other essential duties as assigned by supervisor or defined by company objectives
Monitor, manage and accurately report the forecast for physical inventory levels

·       Managed two schedule systems, database (SAP) and spreadsheets to organize operations information 

·       Work with staff to establish manpower requirements  Checked with the production supervisors to make sure appropriate staff where machines that they had been trained for in order to meet deliveries ( Maintain efficiency)

·       Worked with the shipping department to make sure that orders were shipped correctly and on time

·       Scheduled production orders for the production floor daily to meet customer delivery dates 



A data such as death or time to

A common problem faced in most research area nowadays is the problem of missing data.As such there is an increasingly awareness of theses problems and biases which can because by it. With the presence of missing data, an element of ambiguity is introducedinto data analysis. They can affect the properties of statistical estimators such as themean, variance or percentages which may result to misleading conclusions as well representloss of statistical power (Peter Schmitt et al, 2015). The underlying goal of anystatistical analysis to make valid inferences regarding the population of interest which;with the advent of missing data is been threaten since it create s a biased sample,thatmakes the sample different from the population from which it was drawn (Wayman,2003). There are three major approaches in handling missing data namely the deletionbased approach, simple replacement methods where missing observations are replacedwith plausible values based on available data and model based methods; where missingobservation are replaced by values estimated from models that makes use of data forall variables in the dataset (A M G Ali et al, 2011). The most commonly used methodfor handling missing data is one which edits the missing data to generate a completedataset popularly known as complete case analysis and usually the default in most statisticalpackage. However, this method is subjected to severe drawbacks such as theintroduction of bias in analysis and loss of substantial information. This paved way forthe development of many imputation methods. Hence it serves as alternative approach toderive complete dataset on which complete data methods can be applied. It operates byfilling in missing values rather than deleting incomplete sequences (Molenberghs, 2005).Multiple imputation was proposed by Rubin(1987) which is a commonly used methodto impute missing data. The underlying concept with multiple imputation is to replacemissing values with a number of plausible values based on the distribution of observeddata. This study consider and compare three different imputation method along withsurvival analysis modeling with parametric distributions of the location and scale family.In Survival analysis , data deficiency often occurs in the covariates since the survivaloutcome always consist of easy to measure data such as death or time to event beingpresent in registeries (Huo Zhao, 2015). As such, this study considers missing valueson covariates in the dataset for patients with cancer of the larynx which has as survivaloutcome, the time to death .

Introduction settlers were killed. As a result, Jackson,


In 1795, George
Washington said that if the US government wanted peace with the Indians then it
had to be given to them (“Seventh Annual Message to Congress, December 8, 1795”).
Washington was a consistent supporter of the acculturation of Indians (Perdue
52). Thomas Jefferson’s policy then built off of Washington’s proposition and
allowed the “Five Civilized Tribes” to live in the east of the Mississippi River
as long as they adopted to American principles and behavior (“Jefferson’s
Indian Policy”). Ironically, on May 28, 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed
The Indian Removal Act which legally authorized him to negotiate with Indian tribes
for their relocation to federal territory west of the Mississippi River for
their current lands (“Primary Documents in American History: Indian Removal Act”).
?The Indian Removal Act established the basis of tribal sovereignty and was
instigated by a conflict which was caused by political bias in treaties, the
compromise in Supreme Court cases that proved to be futile, and consequently
caused the mass movement and near extinction of the Cherokee. 

General Andrew Jackson and the Indians

       Before Andrew
Jackson became the President, he served as major general in the War of 1812,
Battle of New Orleans, Creek War, and the First Seminole War (“The War of 1812
and Indian Wars”). On June 18, 1812 Congress officially declared war on Britain
which started the War of 1812 (“An Act Declaring War Against UK and Ireland”). Jackson
leads an army of 2,071 Tennessee volunteers to New Orleans but is instructed to
stop at Natchez, and then Secretary of War, John Armstrong sends a message
ordering him to turn over his force to Wilkinson. Jackson obeys and also
promises to march them back to Nashville and face numerous hardships on the
journey back but pays for all of the provisions and earns himself the respect
and praise of the people of Tennessee (“The War of 1812 and Indian Wars”). On
August 30, 1813 a group of Creek Indians executed the Fort Mims massacre where
hundreds of American settlers were killed. As a result, Jackson, with 2,500
men, is ordered by Tennessee’s governor to engage in warfare against the Creek
Indians lead by Red Eagle and Peter McQueen and then leads a mass slaughter of
the residents at the Creek village of Talluschatchee and claims it as a
retaliation for the Fort Mims slaughter (Willentz 25). Jackson and his men are
forced to retreat to Fort Strother with 2,000 troops after they are attacked in
the Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo in January 1814. Consequently, on March 27,
1814, Jackson engaged the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend where
they were successful and three weeks later, it ended with Red Eagle’s surrender
(Remini 215). These endeavors and subsequent treaties led by Jackson will serve
as foundation and be a supplement to his philosophy when he proposes the Indian
Removal Act and will be a predilection for future decisions.  

President Andrew Jackson’s Treaties and Policy

was nominated as a candidate for the U.S. presidency by the Tennessee
legislature in October, 1825 and wins the election against John Adams and is inaugurated
into the office on March 4, 1829 (“Pursuing the Presidency”) (Refer to Appendix
A for Election Results). In his first annual message to Congress he states that
Indians still have retained their “savage” habits and if they do not move west
of the Mississippi River or submit to state law, then they will face extinction
as did the Delaware or Mohegan (“First Annual Message”). In this message, he
clearly states the intentions that during his presidency he will be a strong
proponent in either moving the Indians or having them legally bound to the
state law and the land west of the Mississippi River will be set aside for the
Indians. His statement also highlighted that the remaining tribes that had
already been established as autonomous nations would face extinction if they
did not submit to Jackson’s constraints. Eventually, President Jackson signed
the Indian Removal Act on May 28, 1830.

Prior to the signing
there had been conflict within the Senate as people spoke out against the
legislation like Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen and Congressman Davy Crockett (Howe
345). In their view they believed that the Government honored Indian rights to
land and independence included in past treaty agreements and presidential
proclamations, and for the federal government to provide the protection, security,
and monetary payments provided for in the treaties (Refer to Appendix B for
Senate Debate). However, amendments to the bill that would support these
actions were all rejected (Senate 383). As said previously, Jackson had lead
treaties that earned the US major parts. After the Creek war had ended in the
Battle of Horseshoe Bend, they were forced to cede approximately 23 million acres
of their land in the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814 Jackson dictated the terms of
the treaty and from the way the terms were it looked like it was almost as an
act of revenge as the treaty stated that prior to Jackson’s military expedition
of that part of the Creek Nation, they were hostile towards the Americans and
many sins and aggressions were committed by the Creeks against the Americans (“Treaty
with The Creeks, August 1814”). This was a tone set by Jackson and his negotiation
strategies that would be almost identical when land was being negotiated with
the Seminoles or Cherokees. Jackson was able to relocate the Chickasaw and
Choctaw but experienced trouble with the Seminoles. They still resisted because
of the suspicious ways the Treaty of Payne’s Landing was signed (Meltzer 76).
Another treaty that gave them the right to stay in their current location was
the Treaty of Moultrie Creek in which the Seminoles had given up all their
claims to the Florida Territory in return for a reservation in the center of
the Florida peninsula which gave them the legal right to stay there (Missal
63-64). Despite the facts, the U.S. still engaged in conflict with the
Seminoles which turned into the Second Seminole War which lasted for over six
years starting in 1835 (Graff 110). This shows of how even though the Seminoles
could legally live in their current area, they were unjustly forced off of
their home.

after Jackson became President, the Georgia legislature passed a series of laws
abolishing the independent government of the Cherokee which destroyed some of the
goals in the Washington and Monroe Administration had in making the Indian
tribes autonomous nations that peacefully interacted with the Americans (Graff
89). Eventually the actions regarding the treaty moved forward and the Treaty
of New Echota was signed on December 29, 1835. The terms that were established
were that the Cherokee Nation ceded all of its territory and move west.
However, the treaty was not approved by the Cherokee National Council, as they
were deemed to be legally illegitimate by the U.S. government, or the Principal
Chief John Ross (Ehle 45). John Ross was a particular opponent to this treaty
because he protested to Congress in 1836 and said that the Cherokee were
peaceful and happy and even under the constraints of treaties and by
stipulations of the Government, they still prospered and have made advances in
their civilization in multiple fields, and it will be unjust to have them
wander in undiscovered lands and into a savage life. He also states that the
treaty that was drafted and signed was fraudulent and made by unauthorized
individuals against the wishes of the Cherokee people (“Chief John Ross’
Memorial and Protest to Congress 1836”). This protest explicitly highlights the
fact that the actions that were taken regarding the treaty were falsified and
they did not receive the full consent of the Cherokee people to ratify the
treaty and this shows how a compromise was reached unjustly even after the
multiple occasions they were treated unfairly.



Supreme Court Cases

to the Treaty of New Echota, there had been two main Supreme Court cases,
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia. In 1829, gold was
discovered in Georgia and a gold rush occurred, and this increased the people’s
determination to remove the Cherokee from their homeland (Williams 3). Following
the discovery of gold, the Georgian legislature forbade the Cherokee to dig
gold and in the following session they stripped them of all of their land
besides their residences where they lived. Even if state judges interfered in these
actions they were denied jurisdiction in such cases. (Perdue 104). This clearly
shows that there was political bias and the state government was acting
reactively instead of acting proactively and looking at the losses the Cherokees
would face. This then instigated the case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. In June
1830, a delegation of Cherokee led by John Ross and William Wirt, attorney general
in the Monroe Administration, were selected to obtain a federal injunction
against laws that were passed by the Georgia state legislature depriving them
of their rights within the state borders (“Cherokee Nation v. Georgia”). They claimed
that Georgia created laws that “go directly to annihilate the Cherokees as a
political society,” and since they were a foreign government, Georgia’s laws
were not legally binding to them. As a counter, Georgia was trying to make the point
that the Cherokee Nation was not a foreign government because they did not have
a constitution or a strong central government The primary request that was
being made was to void all laws that Georgia was making against the Cherokee,
but the Supreme Court did not rule on any decision because they declared that
according to the Constitution, the Cherokee Nation was not a foreign state and
cannot officially make or maintain an action in the Supreme Court, but they
might rule in favor of the Cherokee if they had a proper case. (“Cherokee
Nation v. Georgia 1831”).

Worcester, a minister, and eleven other missionaries had met at New Echota and
published a resolution to go against an 1830 Georgian law prohibiting all white
men from living on Indian land without a state license (Mize “Worcester,
Samuel Austin”). Governor George Gilmer then ordered the militia to arrest
Worcester and the others and after two trials they were all convicted (“Worcester
v. Georgia 1832”). The Cherokee then decided to take this case to the Supreme
Court which then was Worcester v. Georgia. In this case, the Supreme Court removed
the conviction of Samuel Worcester. Interestingly, Georgia did not send anyone
to represent them as they said, “no Indian could drag it into court.” Supreme
Court Justice John Marshall clearly established the relationship between the
Indian tribes, states, and the federal government, stating that the federal
government had the sole authority to deal with Indian nations (“Worcester v.
Georgia”). This then nullified the Geogia statue prohibiting non-Native
Americans from being present on their land without a state license. It also
declared the Cherokee as a sovereign nation thus nullifying all laws that Georgia
imposed on it (Ehle 24). This case would be cited and be used as a precedent in
the future when the laws of tribal sovereignty and reservation system was being
established.  However, President Jackson blatantly
ignored the ruling and responded in a famous quote, “John Marshall has made his
decision, now let him enforce it!” (“Worcester v. Georgia 1832″).

Cherokee Relocation

the decision of Worcester v Georgia, President Jackson disregarded it and still
wanted to relocate the Cherokee. However, he feared that if he continued his
actions he might start a civil war between federal troops and the Georgia
militia, so he needed another legal way to justify their movement (Worcester v.
Georgia and the Nullification Crisis”). The Indian Removal Act gave Jackson the
power to negotiate treaties with the Indians, he then used the conflict that
was created from the Worcester v. Georgia case to coerce the Cherokee to sign
the treaty that would remove them from their homelands and get relocated (Prucha
212). In his speech to Congress on Indian Removal he said in his speech that “it
will enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude
institutions; will retard the progress of decay-to cast of their savage habits
and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community” (“Andrew Jackson’s
Speech to Congress on Indian Removal”). His belief that it would be beneficial
for the Indians garnered support especially from the people who would
economically benefit primarily because of the gold previously discovered in
Georgia. The problem augmented when the state only recognized individual titles
and clearly drew the line between the rights of white and non-white settlers.
As a result, the military actions were enacted by Jackson’s and Van Buren’s administrations
which then caused the harsh journey that the Cherokees would have to face (Prucha

          The entire movement was coined as the Trail of
Tears (For the Map of the Movement Refer to Appendix C), and it lasted from
1831-1850 (Ehle 1). As said previously the Seminole were relocated after they
had lost in the Second Seminole War, and the Creeks were relocated after they
gave up their claims to the land. The mass movement of Indians was the result
of the multiple wars and conflicts the Indians and Americans had and even with the
compromise that was reached in court cases, they were still relocated because
of Jackson’s strong desire and goal to relocate the Indians for colonial and
economic expansion.

treaty to relocate the Cherokee was imposed by President Van Buren and an armed
force of 7,000 men under General Winfield Scott were ordered to relocate 13,000
Cherokees (Mooney 130). In the winter of 1838, they began the 1,000-mile
journey with very little clothing and because of disease, they were not allowed
to go into any towns or villages, so this meant they had to travel a
significantly longer distance to go around them (Ehle 34). After they crossed
Tennessee and Kentucky, they faced a challenge at the Ohio River where they
were not allowed to cross until everyone else who wanted to cross went on the
ferry, so they were forced to take shelter under a bluff where many died
because of the poor conditions like disease and the temperature (Ehle 48). A
soldier from Georgia who was on the journey said, “I fought through the War
Between the States and have seen many men shot, but the Cherokee Removal was
the cruelest work I ever knew” (Remini 169). The Cherokee unfortunately
sustained the most casualties on the trek through southern Illinois because of
the freezing temperatures. The Cherokee sustained about 4,000 casualties (Ehle


Indian Removal Act was the result of a strong philosophy that was formed by
years of policy and debate especially from the Jefferson and Jackson
administration, and it was set in stone after General Jackson had numerous
encounters with Indian negotiations and conflicts and when he entered the
Presidency, he made it his goal to relocate the rest of the Indian tribes west
of the Mississippi River for colonial and economic expansion. When numerous
people like Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen, Congressman Davy Crockett, Cherokee
Chief John Ross, and Samuel Worcester had written petitions, debated, and taken
cases to court to reach a compromise, it was ruled in the Cherokee’s favor, but
because of political bias and desire, they were still forced to relocate and
embark on a treacherous journey. This has left a mark in our history as it
established the laws of tribal sovereignty and the reservation system that is
seen today.