CHD comparison with low triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio. The

CHD is a disease which causes a build-up of fatty plaque in the coronary arteries. The article selected aims to evaluate the hypothesis whether high plasma triglyceride levels and high HDL cholesterol levels can lead to the identification of elevated hypertension and insulin resistance as well as cardiovascular disease risk profiles such as CHD (coronary heart disease). Results were obtained from 2003-2012 involving 855 women (between the ages 17-51) and 453 men (between the ages of 16-52). The individuals were sectored into high and low risk groups. If one was placed in a high-risk group this would indicate they were more at risk of developing CVD. The diagnosis of forming CVD risk factor profiles used is called MetS1. This was an effective aspect to the study as it gave a concise outcome in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. These were then subdivided into low and high-risk groups based on the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio or from the MetS diagnostic criteria formulated. To measure the blood pressure of the selected men and women, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure was taken using a mercury sphygmamometer1. An average was then calculated and results were recorded (external variables were considered). In order to measure the HDL cholesterol levels individuals were instructed to fast 12 hours overnight.  The results obtained depicted a strong positive correlation between high HDL cholesterol and triglyceride ratio with elevated blood pressure levels (133/353=38%) in comparison to the rest of the findings (138/574=24%)1. CVD risk factors were seen to be considerably worse in two groups which were high HDL cholesterol ratio in comparison with low triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio. The results also portrayed that a positive diagnosis for MetS lead to more adverse cardio metabolic risk profiles. However, one could state that a change in HDL cholesterol levels doesn’t indicate a casual role in the development of CVD but due to alternate factors. When a follow up study was conducted 10 years post previous analysis involving 6343 subjects, 51 CVD cases were identified with 31 non-fatal and 8 fatal coronary events. All these cases were seen to be at a high-risk group. Electrocardiographic evidence of individuals with high blood pressure lead to depict greater risk of ischemic heart disease. Thus, 25% of presumable healthy individuals were more resistant to insulin therefore deciphers a greater risk of CHD.1  Thus, as a result, the study provides both clinical and pathophysiological information to determine a relationship between elevated hypertension and HDL cholesterol with a type of CVD being CHD. Healthy individuals displaying a cardio metabolic risk profile had an increased risk of CVD when determining their plasma concentration ratio of triglycerides/HDL cholesterol. Hence, would lead to elevated hypertensive levels and at a greater degree of risk of development of CVD. Resultantly, basic lifestyle alterations such as dietary stipulations of fats as well as weight reduction or drug therapy can lead to lowering the risk of high blood pressure.1. As for cholesterol, potent cholesterol lowering drugs such as statins can reduce the risk of developing CHD in later life.2.  

In an ancient French dialect influenced by Norwegian.

 In Britain there are many different accents, some of them being Scottish and Welsh and Irish. Moreover, the language is united, but in a difference in dialect such as the word and these things. There are several regions in England that different in the dialect from north to south and for us the difficulty in the pronunciation like the British more than the British accent. The German accent is close to the British accent and there are words from the two languages ??that are similar in words, but the pronunciation is different.  Every country in the world has its own language, but the United of Kingdom knows its English accent that may seem unique and sometimes strange.  History In the middle of the 5th century, the tribes of the English, Saxon and Jute tribes began to migrate from their original lands in the northern European plains between the present north of Germany and the Netherlands to the island of Britain, filling the geopolitical vacuum that had been dissolved by the Romans’ sudden decision to withdraw. The island was inhabited by them to the west and north, while they settled in the south. The integration of the cultural components of the expatriate tribes emerged from ancient English, which was also influenced by another language, the old Norwegian. The Phoenician language, which colonized most of the eastern coast of the island in the eighth century, was influenced by Denmark. In 1066, Normans invaded England from Normandy on the French coast. The Norman ruling class spoke an ancient French dialect influenced by Norwegian. Their language for hundreds of years was modern and the language of administration and law in England. When English came back to speak in the Middle Ages, it gained much of the ingredients of Latin languages ??through Norman and French, and became far from its Germanic origins than was Anglo Saxon.  The British accent is important nowadays in our life. English is a Germanic language that originated in England. Is the third most widely spoken mother tongue in the world 402 million according to the 2002 census. In addition, to its great spread in the world due to the military, economic, cultural, scientific and political influences of the British Empire and then the United States of America. The most important its spread outside the British Isles began with the growth of the British Empire, and by the late nineteenth century its spread was truly global. After British colonization, the British Empire was the first international language to be spoken. In North America, the dominant language in the United States, whose economic and cultural growth has been the influence and status of global superpowers since World War II, has become the major reason why it has become the fastest language in the world. 

According to the Oxford
English Dictionary “British
English is the English
Language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom”.


According to Stuart (2009) Different countries in the
world change the post of communication by speaking English. There have
been a couple of attempts to give sneak peaks of British English. Robinson says
that in the region of 1898 and 1905, the Oxford instructor of close philology,
Joseph Wright, changed a six-volume English Dialect Dictionary, at first at his
own particular cost. “He sent piles of examiners out around the country
and the result was a calfskin headed legitimate manual for dialects in the UK.
Clearly, it was generally about nineteenth century use, be that as it may it
was wonderful.” This molded the model for later lexicographical hands on
work errands, for instance, the Leeds Survey of Regional English.


  Tolkien (1955) adds Britons population was in the current time insolated group from the Celtic mainland, the occupation of romans rubbished them. The welsh, Cornish, Cambridge accent gathering live together and the nearby English in the evolved generation, but the causes of the German accent effect on the English accent in clearly. Moreover, the rate of effect still got struggle, in the late time it claims the effect language to present the raise of generous progress observed the English language and other of the dialect east Germany.



to Mastin (2012) He pass through the British accent by words in using different
accents. There was a focus for 5 different languages worth mentioning, there
was almost five hundred of approaches for previewing the words all those was in
the fifth century. The cause of Anglo Saxon was from the official concrete, the
intelligence and conceptual come from the English language and it contains the
Latin and France effect the swine same as Schwerin Germanic is a human being in
the cloned field before the Anglo Saxon owned the pork same as the porc of
France is creature by eating up of the table with the Normans involving.


This writer also says


real divisions are ordinarily named English or English as spoken in England,
which includes Southern English tongues, West Country vernaculars, East and
West Midlands English lingos and Northern English lingos, Ulster English in
Northern Ireland, Welsh English not to be mistaken for the Welsh dialect, and
Scottish English not to be mistaken for the Scots dialect”.


 John) 2003) adds The English
dialect film started in the university of Leeds in 2011, they give them a
chance for previewing their own country languages. 

Introduction then else endif [24]

Introduction to Language Theory and Compiling

Shubham Batra, Nathan Liccardo
November 26, 2017



1  Part 1 : Grammar modifications 3

1.1  Unreachableandunproductivevariables …………….. 4

1.2  Non-ambigousgrammar …………………….. 4

1.3  LeftRecursionandLeftFactoring………………… 4

1.3.1 LeftRecursion………………………. 4
1.3.2 LeftFactoring………………………. 5
1.3.3 Algorithms ……………………….. 5

2  Part 2 : Grammar analyses 6

2.1  First1(X)…………………………….. 6

2.2  Follow1(X)……………………………. 7

2.3  Actiontable…………………………… 8

3 Part 3 : Parser 8

3.1  Recursivedescentparser …………………….. 9

3.2  Implementation…………………………. 10

3.3  ParserTree …………………………… 10


1 Part 1 : Grammar modifications

For the first part, we were asked to transform the IMP grammar in order to :
• Remove unreachable and/or unproductive variables, if any;

• Make the grammar non-ambiguous by taking into account the priority and the
associativity of the operators.

• Remove left-recursion and apply factorisation where need be.
Here is the original grammar :

1 ? begin end
2 ? ?
3 ?
4 ?
5 ? ;
6 ?

7 ?
8 ?
9 ?
10 ?
11 ?
12 ? VarName :=
13 ? VarName
14 ? Number
15 ? ( )
16 ? –
17 ?
18 ? +
19 ? –
20 ? *
21 ? /
22 ? if then endif
23 ? if then else endif
24 ?
25 ? not
26 ?
27 ?
28 ? and
29 ? or
30 ? =
31 ? >=
32 ? >
33 ? <= 34 ? < 35 ? <>
36 ? while do done
37 ? for VarName from by
to do done
38 ? for VarName from to do done
39 ? print(VarName)
40 ? read(VarName)


1.1 Unreachable and unproductive variables

Firstly, we were asked to find the unreachable and unproductive variables in the gram-
mar, but we do not find any unproductive symbol or inaccessible symbol in the gram-

1.2 Non-ambigous grammar

Secondly we need to make the grammar non-ambigous by taking into account the fol-
lowing table of priority and associativity of the operators (decreasing order of priority) :



-, not
?, /
+, –
>, <, >=, <=, =, <>



To do it, we just needed to transform a little bit our grammar. The trick is to detect
firstly the symbols with the lowest priority (or) and to finish by the highest priority (-,
not). The “or” and “and symbols can only appears in condition. We so need to check
that we will firstly detect those elements. This step will be done by transforming the
following rules :

1 ?
2 ? and
3 ? or

by :

6 ? ?
This transforation was aslo applied to +, ? and ?, / operators.

1.3 Left Recursion and Left Factoring

1.3.1 Left Recursion

Left recursion often poses problems for parsers, either because it leads them into infinite
recursion or because they expect rules in a normal form that forbids it Therefore, a
grammar is often pre-processed to eliminate the left recursion. In our current grammar,
we will ilustrated removing left-recursion with the following example :

1 ? or
2 ?
3 ? ?
4 ? and
5 ?


1 ? or
2 ?
3 ? ?

To remove it, we firstly transform the and then create the and
rules :

1 ?
2 ?
3 ? or
4 ? ?

The same trick was applied to each left-recursion in the grammar.

1.3.2 Left Factoring

Left factoring is a grammar transformation that is useful for producing a grammar
suitable for predictive parsing. The basic idea is that when it is not clear which of two
alternative productions to use to expand a non-terminal A, we may be able to rewrite
the A-productions to defer the decision until we have seen enough of the input to make
the right choice. For example,

1 ? for VarName from by
to do done
2 ? for VarName from to do done

becomes :

1 ? for VarName from by
to do done
2 ? by
3 ? ?

Again, the same trick was applied to each left-factoring in the grammar.

1.3.3 Algorithms

For information, you can find here the pseudo-code to generate both left factoring and
recursion :


2 Part 2 : Grammar analyses

Secondly, we were mandatory to give the action table of an LL(1) parser for the trans-
formed grammar. The construction of a predictive parser is aided by two functions
associated with a grammar G. These functions, FIRST and FOLLOW, allow us to
fill in the entries of a predictive parsing table for G, whenever possible. Sets of tokens
yielded by the FOLLOW function can also be used as synchronizing tokens during error

2.1 First1(X)

If A is any symbol of the grammar, let FIRST1(A) be the set of terminals that begin
the strings derived from A. If the A rules contain ? then it is also an element of the
result set. To compute FIRST1(X), we applied to following steps for each identifiers :

RecursiveUpdate :
rules ? Grammar.getRulesWithIdentifier
for each rules :

if first element of rule = terminal :
set ? first element of rule

else if first element of rule = identifier :
RecursiveUpdate(first element of rule)

Which can be resumed to :

If X is terminal or ? , then FIRST(A) ? {X}.

If X is nonterminal and X ? Y1 Y2 … Yk is a production, then call FIRST1(Y1)
and put it on FIRST1(X).

In the project, the First1(X) function is represented by the class VariableSetFirst. This
class is helped by some other utils classes which was only created to make the project
more simple. You will find two importants functions used to make the first set which
are :

firstCalculation : used to iterate each identifiers.

recursiveUpdate : used to find every first values.


2.2 Follow1(X)

Define FOLLOW(A), for nonterminal A, to be the set of terminals a that can appear
immediately to the right of A. To compute FOLLOW1(A) for all nonterminals A, we
applied the following code which explain each steps :

private void followCalculation() {
_checked = new ArrayList<>();
for (VariableIdentifier var : _grammar.getIdentifiers()) {

_var = var;



private void recursive3(VariableIdentifier variable) {
ArrayList rules = _grammar.getNotRulesWith(variable);

for (Rule rule: rules) {

if (_var.equals(variable)) _currentRule = rule;

for (int index: rule.indexs(variable)) {
// CASE 1.1


if (notLastAndTerminal(rule, index))
caseNotLastAndTerminal(rule, index);

// CASE 1.2
else if (notLastAndIdentifier(rule, index))

caseNotLastAndIdentifier(rule, index);
// CASE 2



private boolean notLastAndTerminal(Rule rule, int index) {
if (index+1 < rule.getSize()) { Variable current = rule.getRuleIndex(index+1); if (current instanceof VariableTerminal) return true; } return false; } private boolean notLastAndIdentifier(Rule rule, int index) { if (index+1 < rule.getSize()) { Variable current = rule.getRuleIndex(index+1); if (current instanceof VariableIdentifier) return true; } return false; } private void caseNotLastAndTerminal(Rule rule, int index) { VariableTerminal terminal = (VariableTerminal) rule.getRuleIndex(index+1); 7 _set.addStart(_var, terminal, _currentRule); } private void caseNotLastAndIdentifier(Rule rule, int index) { VariablePairSet set = _first.getFirst(rule.getRuleIndex(index+1)); if(set.removeAllTerminal(EPS) && !(_checked.contains(rule.getIdentifier()))) recursive3(rule.getIdentifier()); for (VariablePair var: set) { _set.addStart(_var, var.getStart(), _currentRule); } } private void caseLastElement(Rule rule) { if (!(_checked.contains(rule.getIdentifier()))) recursive3(rule.getIdentifier()); } 2.3 Action table To create the action table, we need the FIRST and FOLLOW sets for each non-terminal in the grammar. We dram a n*m table from the input we receive. n denotes the num- ber of non-terminals we have in the grammar and we determine m by counting all the terminals in the grammar. Then in each cell, we add the number of the rule that allows a non-terminal to access to a terminal variable. In the project, the action table is constructed using the actionLine and actionLine- Tuple classes. An array is constructed of all the variables in a line with line tuples in it. Integers are only inserted where needed and rest spaces are left blank which helps us to reduce the memory size. Less memory is needed to store the data. The first and follow are needed to construct the table. In fact, we use the in the first time the FIRST1 function to calculate each first values. If we found an ? in the FIRST1 set, then we apply the FOLLOW1 function. Those steps are explained bellow : ActionTable { create ActionTableInstance for each non-terminal X : create ActionTableLineInstance set ? getAllFirst(X) if ? in set : set ? set.removeEps set ? getFollow ActionTableLine.add(set) } 3 Part 3 : Parser For the third part, we were asked to write, in Java, a recursive descent LL(1) parser for this grammar. 8 3.1 Recursive descent parser Recursive descent is a top-down parsing technique that constructs the parse tree from the top and the input is read from left to right. It uses procedures for every terminal and non-terminal entity. This parsing technique recursively parses the input to make a parse tree, which may or may not require back-tracking. But the grammar associated with it (if not left factored) cannot avoid back-tracking. A form of recursive-descent parsing that does not require any back-tracking is known as predictive parsing. Predictive parsing is possible only for the class of LL(k) grammars, which are the context-free grammars for which there exists some positive integer k that allows a re- cursive descent parser to decide which production to use by examining only the next k tokens of input. The LL(k) grammars therefore exclude all ambiguous grammars, as well as all grammars that contain left recursion. Any context-free grammar can be transformed into an equivalent grammar that has no left recursion, but removal of left recursion does not always yield an LL(k) grammar. A predictive parser runs in linear time. Recursive descent with backtracking is a technique that determines which production to use by trying each production in turn. Recursive descent with backtracking is not limited to LL(k) grammars, but is not guaranteed to terminate unless the grammar is LL(k). Even when they terminate, parsers that use recursive descent with backtracking may require exponential time. Although predictive parsers are widely used, and are frequently chosen if writing a parser by hand, programmers often prefer to use a table-based parser produced by a parser generator, either for an LL(k) language or using an alternative parser, such as LALR or LR. This is particularly the case if a grammar is not in LL(k) form, as transforming the grammar to LL to make it suitable for predictive parsing is involved. Predictive parsers can also be automatically generated, using tools like ANTLR. Predictive parser is a recursive descent parser, which has the capability to predict which production is to be used to replace the input string. The predictive parser does not suffer from backtracking. To accomplish its tasks, the predictive parser uses a look-ahead pointer, which points to the next input symbols. To make the parser back- tracking free, the predictive parser puts some constraints on the grammar and accepts only a class of grammar known as LL(k) grammar. Predictive parsing uses a stack and a parsing table to parse the input and generate a parse tree. Both the stack and the input contains an end symbol $ to denote that the stack is empty and the input is consumed. The parser refers to the parsing table to take any decision on the input and stack element combination. 9 3.2 Implementation The implementation of the parser is quite simple. We firstly instantiated a stack and then read every symbol of the input to change the stack states. Note that the function stop if any error occurs. In the other case, it returns true which means that the input is accepted by the grammar. public boolean parse() { // Step One : init stack _stack.push(_grammar.getRule(0)); // Step Two : parse while (!(_stack.isEmpty()) && !(_input.isEmpty())) { // Pop the first variable of the stack Variable current = _stack.pop(); // Get the curent variable in the input VariableTerminal terminal = new VariableTerminal((_input.get(0)).getType()); // If the poped variable is a terminal if (current instanceof VariableTerminal) if (!(caseTerminal((VariableTerminal) current , terminal))) return false; // If the poped variable is an Id if (current instanceof VariableIdentifier) caseIdentifier(terminal, (VariableIdentifier) current); } // Step Three : check the stack System.out.println(); return (_stack.isEmpty()); } 3.3 Parser Tree A parse tree is a graphical depiction of a derivation. It is convenient to see how strings are derived from the start symbol. The start symbol of the derivation becomes the root of the parse tree. In a parse tree: • All leaf nodes are terminals. • All interior nodes are non-terminals. • In-order traversal gives original input string. A parse tree depicts associativity and precedence of operators. The deepest sub-tree is traversed first, therefore the operator in that sub-tree gets precedence over the operator which is in the parent nodes. In the project we added the possibility to show the parse tree. This can be done by printing the number of the called rule at each recursion. 10 

Pseudomonas abiotically with manganese oxides. Another important feature

Pseudomonas is a genus
of Gram-negative,
Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae
and containing 191 validly described species. The members of the genus
demonstrate a great deal of metabolic diversity and consequently are able to colonize
a wide range of niches. Infectious species include P. aeruginosa, P. oryzihabitans, and P. plecoglossicida. P.
aeruginosa flourishes in hospital environments, and is a particular problem
in this environment, since it is the second-most common infection in
hospitalized patients (nosocomial infections). This pathogenesis may
in part be due to the proteins secreted by P. aeruginosa. P. syringae
is a prolific plant pathogen. It exists as over 50 different pathovars,
many of which demonstrate a high degree of host-plant specificity. Numerous
other Pseudomonas species can act as plant pathogens, notably all of the
other members of the P. syringae subgroup, but P. syringae is the
most widespread and best-studied. Thus detection of the pseudomonas has become
very important in many fields of our day to day lives.

The detection of these organisms can easily
be done with the help of spectrometric detection. Here the first step is to
form a core of Ferric-Manganese oxide which is coated with silica. Iron (2) and
manganese may represent the primary electron acceptors for organic matter
oxidation in sedimentary environments where they are enriched. Bacterially
mediated Mn reduction can occur indirectly when reduced, metabolically excreted
end products, such as sulfide (3) and certain organic compounds (4, 5), react
abiotically with manganese oxides. Another important feature of the iron
manganese oxide is its magnetic properties. Silica-coated noble metal
nanoparticles have attracted great interest because they can be used as
catalysts as well as in calorimetric and optical applications. They are
typically produced using silane precursors, but these are generally insoluble
in water. Consequently, alcohol has to be added to water to facilitate the
hydrolysis of these precursors, increasing the cost of production and making
the process less green. The core is made to connect with the aptamer of a
specific sequence which is also complementary to the pseudomonas. The next step
is to add the sample containing pseudomonas. As a result it is expected that
all the pseudomonas are going to get attached to their complementary sequences
and the rest of the unwanted particles will be washed off.

The last and the main part of the project
is the part of detection. This is done by connecting another aptamer to the
attached pseudomonas. These aptamers will already be connected to the ferric
manganese oxide cores. The main aim of this part is to send a signal on
attachment to the pseudomonas which can easily be specified either by
colorimetric or by mass spectrometric assay. The horseradish peroxide (HRP)
will be attached to the core. In the presence of peroxide when the 2, 4,
6-tribromophenol will be oxidized and a change in colour will be noticed. This
change in colour will only be noticed when the aptamer is attached to the
pseudomonas. Thus by doing spectrometric assay the optical density of the
solution can be obtained and by obtaining the change in the density the
concentration of the pseudomonas can easily be obtained.

Write maximize 85% from the last year.? Ransomware

Write a brief report on the comparison of ISTR-21 and ISTR-22.ISTR (Internet Security Threat Report)-21Introduction:Symantec data helped to identify the various kind of malware which were recorded in 2015 and The ISTR inspected almost more than 430 million of several new types of malwares and viruses which was exceed 36% from the last year. The data enabled ISTR to examine different aspects regarding social media scams, targeted attacks, threats and vulnerabilities of IoT.There are six main key features of security threats which are listed in ISTR-21 which was logged in 2015.? New Zero Day Vulnerability increased 125%:New Zero Day Vulnerabilities was identified more than 125% from last year, was found on almost every week, which is not that much surprising because it was kind of common product when market is trying to meet their profit goals. Software which were commonly used in 2015, had vulnerabilities which attracted the hackers like Adobe Flash and web browsers. Zero day attack include in cybercriminal attacks. At this point of time, many will get infected if patch would not apply.? Loss of Personal data increased 85%:In 2015, the people had faced the maximum data loss which was reported and many of companies did not reveal the breaches they had experienced. If companies reported the actual fact of data breaching then, According to Symantec estimation, almost more than half a billion of data were stolen, which was maximize 85% from the last year.? Ransomware Attacks increased 35%:Ransomware is evolving day by day. In 2015 the Ransomwares nurtured 35% more, the target was to trap PC users and populate over a network for profit before 2015.Symentec had mentioned proof-of concept attacks in 2015 Ransomwares got new targets and stepped forward to mobile and smart phones users, smart watches and televisions.? All Companies Vulnerabilities increased 55%:Attackers target was not limit to government organization or financial companies. In 2015 even small scale business were at risks too. Around 500 companies including large and small scale had risk of IP stolen even a laundry service was target too which is clear warning for all businesses that they are having significant risks of targeted attacks or threats .This targeted attacks to companies was also maximized to 55% in 2015.? 75% of popular websites had vulnerabilities:Almost ¾ of popular, well known and widely used websites had unpatched vulnerabilities, which means the users got infected by genuine websites because the attackers got chance to access and manipulate the websites due to less secured administration. In 2015 almost each and every day millions of web attacks had occurred.? Blocked 100 million Fake Technical Support Scams:As threats are growing daily like ransomware similarly attackers were fooling victims to trick pop ups of system updates or alerts of system errors. Symantec blocked around 100 million of this fake scam alerts in 2015.ISTR (Internet Security Threat Report)-22Introduction:The latest release of Symantec explains the current state of security threats around the globe. The data of Symantec helps to reveal the several incidents which was happened in 2016. This report specifies not only that zero day vulnerabilities and various improved attacks were the cyber threats in 2016 but also usage of spear phishing to mix with normal network traffic.The key features and trends which is recorded by Symantec from thee data of 2016 are as followed? Usage of Online tools by CybercriminalsMany hackers and cybercriminals used many common online products services like DDoS and latest versions of ransomwares and malwares, which are easily available online and for that hackers do not need any technical background to do so ,the only requirements are system and internet connection.? Emails become tool for injecting RansomwareEmails become the more ease way to inject any virus, malware and ransomware or illegitimate access of data or credentials. These attacks were identified almost after a year or many months. The only a click to link by a victim always was the successful attack in 2016.? IoT VulnerabilitiesISTR-22 again and again mentions thee Mirai botnet which made internet to its maximum harms. The devices which connected to internet were more near to harm. Symantec specified that after each 2 minutes, IoT were targeted.? Tools widely used by CybercriminalsReport indicated the tools which were commonly used in 2016 by cybercriminals and hackers like Samdump, Mimikatz, PsExec, Netscan and Powershell to demae the network but according to report, attacker got access by stolen credentials.? Financial Attacks increasedIn 2016, financial attacks are getting worse. The attacks moved forward to financial companies and targeted to billions which is the next level of financial attack.

INTRODUCTION: which repeat the riddles or rings, because

INTRODUCTION: Steam transformer rotors stoop throughout
affair, however the relevance and reinforces are planed to check the immobile
and go-getter forces subdued. However, arching may cause affect in desk bound
and rotating parts—time and again cascading affects. An driver of a variety of
utility-scale strength transformer shares its broad pick up revel in
identifying the embed reason for mess ups in addition outstanding solutions.
Rotor bowing in order that ends up in half-baked misstep of beef implement
épées and farther viscerous components is one of your so much sincereproblems
practiced docile cover actions. The problems time and again shrink raise iron
in the fire by limiting genesis and make bigger raise serviceand maintenance
lose. Extreme rotor twisting problems generally contain synergy intervening the
generator’s rotor and desk bound parts. Rotor twining may well be brought on by
more than a few constant and productive factors, a lot of that will be explored
during this article. We first cold factors associated with the rotor, the
vastst rotating molding within the transformer. Working of the thoroughly, we
afterward inspectrotor adjust topics, followed by rotor and jacket misalignment
problems, and problems brought about per unit skin. The conversation stay
adventuretook place on the six-wing, 1,890-MW , positioned in Ahwaz, Iran. The
joints grant diploma beginning at 1980 round 1985. DISCUSSION TOPIC: 1.Rotor
Rubs: It approximately lose weight axiom which repeat the riddles or rings,
because of poor clearances, disrupts the top sealing of one’s rotor. This trade
as a rule appears although the high-batch rotor at acting race is available in
visit alongside a desk bound come to light, basically because ofa too-small
clearance in the midst of the morass or prophylactic gland seals and the rotor.
Secondarily, there’s a sectarian febricity amplify on the verge of touch,
causing extendd foil pyrexias intending talk thanks to friction. The forces
acted respectively have an effect on of your immense rotating rotor horde
together with the under the weather functioning desk boundseals repeatedly
impress a layer of casting at the rise of one’s rotor. The rub may cause
ebullient trauma of your rotor set affect and temporary rotor duct curving. The
helve winding attitude usually result in extendd pulsation levels (Figure 1).
Fig 1: Rubbing inside the sealing of a dramatic rotor of a 300-MW piece led to
winding in this regard rotor and brand tip rubs Uneven refrigerateing of your
rotor, in particular postliminary closure, besides result ins the rotor to
association desk bound parts. After a crew shuts disheartened, the comparably
highheat rotor might bend exclusively thanks to the preponderance of one’s
rotor and the space halfway looktoughens, if progressive within a desk bound
standing to neat. This posture may cause long-lasting beam twisting. 2.Rotor
Imcalculate Increases Vibration: Shaft curve on top of shifts the
circumrotation pole of one’s tunnel by stirring the heap focus of one’s rotor,
creating wavering. This fluctuation affects épées in triplet momentous
ways.First, the throbbing result ins knife constructural problems. The
spreadingforces encountered at some stage in procedure are substantial, causing
an expand within the malleable forces inside the shank diagram and, if the
heart of lot isn’t at the branched path, curving stresses on top of jell.
Additionally, veering stresses be created in edge joints under the pressure
effects of one’s HP might flowing significantly throughout the tool barrel. The
magnitude of one’sse stresses is dependent at the flow rate of vim, the heat drop
across the shank stage, the successional advance of one’s épées, and the
cutlass weight. The degrees of one’s beef, superheated within thefirst stage
and saturated inside the final stages, attitude have an effect at the automatic
properties and corrosion of one’s shank materials (Figure 2). 1/3/2018
Plagiarism Checker – Free Online Software by EduBirdie 2/2 Fig 2: Failure about intense rotor
control stage was brought on by uneven distribution of sinew because of
corrosion. 3.Casing Also an Important Factor in Rotor Vibration: There are
quite a few ways a particular jacket incalescence fluctuations may cause
potencybarrel judder. Casing problems may cause misalignment in a variety of
alternative ways, such a lotly associated with maturation and shrinkage owing
to thermal reading fluctuations. First, the motor circular solid may have
calefaction layer attributable to too little too late sizzling detachment of
your sheath and/or weak insulation in unalike areas. Loss of one’srmal
sequestration can be attributable to poor insulation at contacts in the middle
joints and pipes to the sheaths, usually on the bottom of one’s diesel. Poor
wrapper insulation on the bottom, for example, may cause a thermal reading
grade on the top sagging of one’ssheath, which can result in wrapper misuse and
yielding rotor bowing. The huckster determination determine the appropriate
hull cold acclivity. In our revel in, the slant ought to be not more than 60C.
New HP apparatus are especially mindful hull scorching angles. Next, if the
generator is started originating at a hot condition before it has returned to
amidstin incurvation limits, then rotating épées and desk boundcondoms may rub
and result in damage to seals and abortion glands. As helve weights amplify, so
do the dimensions of your powerhouse rotor, mechanism circular solid, and the
heated inertia of one’s beam. The effect is to require longer periods of time
intervening startups (and on turning gear) so any flexure of your rotor is removed
before the later startup. Finally, uncompensated flow of puissance pipes
connected to the wrapper may cause skin evolutions and rotor fluctuation. This
is specifically true for grand-diameter pipes by opaque walls. When the motor
is turning, the rotor has interior trend, as does the motor skin. Thermal
spread of one’sscheme is view for inside the instrument tailor. The forces and
moments which the particular hefty pipes plead the sheath are likewise thought
to beall through piston perform. Excessive pipe linkage loads can cause sheath
wound, and the bowing moments ask the sheath labium may again result inshift
and evolution of your circular solid includingwithin the wrapper, each of two
of that may amplify rotor pulsation. Acknowledgements: The Authors bless to
bailiwick of Mechanical Engineering of Centennial College to produce abstruse
make stronger and besides kiss to Prof. Cristina Toma for Guidance and
information approximately subject matter of routine misstep. The authors again
show gratitude to myPOWER photographer to furnish this knowledge dealing with
happening took place Ramin Power Plant. References: 1. MyPOWER PUBLISHER’s
probe paper. 2. Incident news of 890-MW , stationed in Ahwaz, Iran. The joints
get out starting with 1980 straight 1985.

We unto the dampen soil. The symphony of

drove past the guardian of the enchanted forest – an ancient yakal tree, known to
some sort of mythical wonder. It stands in the middle of the road elegantly
like a sentinel of secret bliss and delight. It reminded me one of my mom’s road
trip story – how loggers were bestowed illness and misfortunes upon their
attempts to cut down that particular cherub tree. That fortress protects the flimsy
forest from maleficence. I slowly closed my eyes as the luscious ambiance
welcomed us like the universe embracing a sprouting seedling, showing its
marvel. Leaf-decorated path guided our journey towards self-discovery and nature
trek. The oddity of my dad’s wicked smirk disturbed me, so, I willingly fixed my
eyes on the daring car that overtook us despite the sharp curved road ahead of
us. My dad’s incredible focus on the road made me wonder. Does he consider this
haven dreamland like I do?

stick out my head, gazing beneath the blurred car mirror, water droplets
rolling through the windowpane. Car lights, road reflectors, and the moon
appeared to be the source of light in this botanic wonderland. Nevertheless, the
woody paradise awed me as we lurked deeper in the mahogany-brown forest. Drizzles
were slowed down as it descends to snapping branches of the leafy flora,
settling unto the dampen soil. The symphony of chirping crickets calmed my
pulsing heart. Rustling leaves twiddled in the northeast monsoon. Zephyr flew
along the dark-green foliage, blowing cold breeze to crispy ferns resting on
mossy mountain rocks. Nimbus clouds impeded the breathtaking view of the Milky
Way Galaxy. Radiant flower petals rather sparkle alongside the road like shimmering
stars in the cosmos.

forest’s grandeur stopped my time. Its warming beauty resembled a mother
caressing a fragile body like of a child’s. An epitome of grace. From the mist
to the fireflies, everything felt right. This normal trip was rather soul
soothing and heart haunting. I felt home. The picturesque forest has brought
back my favorite childhood memory.

A young girl in loved with nature –
that’s me. Our home, a simple hut in barrio, was the perfect avenue for my
fondness in trees and plants. I’ve watered shrubberies every day and cried
wholeheartedly over the seeds that didn’t sprout. Coconut tree, rice paddles,
streams – I’ve enjoyed them all.

we continued, my dad swished his dashing forefinger to the blank road ahead of
us. The corner of his lips curved slightly upward, complimented by the sudden
sparkle in his brown eyes – facial expression he makes when recalling a good
old memory.

monkey has wandered and crossed that alley over there. You should have seen
that once in a blue moon event, my dear. But you’re such a sleepyhead!” My dad

world is changing at a rapid-fire pace. The sight that my dad has mentioned is
long gone now, and probably will never occur again. My reminiscence didn’t stop
the car from running. Distance between sprawling trees became wider as we went
on. The wood creatures’ screeches diminished. Civilian shelters started to replace
the thick canopy alongside the artificially lit road. People descend from
stretched back cars buying snacks probably for some other trip. This expressive
trip is bound to end.

rested my back against the car seat and saw the townscape. I started missing
the earthy smell. Suddenly, I felt like a grown up again, a much older person.

When Besides commitment to accomplishing key objectives, effective

When I am at work of setting up my message for January
2018 issue of ‘Rubber India’, there are only a few days left for the year 2017
to come to an end. For you certainly the year-end is an extremely busy time. It’s
important to find balance where possible: the balance between taking time off
and the final push for the year; the balance between spending your time between
work and loved ones; the balance between rejoicing the wins and picking-up from
the challenges; the balance between finishing off tasks for 2017 and outlining
a game plan for 2018.  Organizations
around the globe develop strategic plans. To this end, some of my unassuming
proposals to you are –


·    Sharply focus on your business to get unmistakable results
in 2018.

·    Revisit your exercises and outcomes in 2017, try and make
sense of the emerging configuration.

·    Ruminate the challenges. Every business and individual confronted
challenges in 2017, some more than others. Consider these troubles, gain from
botches and decide how you would do things differently to move forward. Face
your failures, if any, with a growth mindset and gain from them.

·    Sense of urgency, faster speed to market –a gut level
determination to act today.

·    Steadfast discipline: Besides commitment to accomplishing
key objectives, effective execution importantly implies having the discipline
necessary to achieve your goals and make sustainable behavioural improvement.


Be it transparency, monitoring, measurement and feedback,
obviously you know pretty well the distinctive pre-requisites of masterminding.  So enumeration is superfluous. I simply
encourage you that please don’t dither to urge us how best the Association could
stay by you as business facilitator.


2018, among other things, AIRIA would like to make representations to the
Ministry for rectification of duty inversion anomalies in respect of the rubber
sector.  Allegedly, higher import duty
on raw materials resulting in duty inversion anomalies facilitate rampant
import of finished products into the country at cheaper prices.  It badly affects the domestic business of our
indigenous manufacturers.  We need to
articulate specific cases fortified with solid data to convince the Ministry to
rectify the anomalous duty inversion structure. 
For this purpose, we solicit relevant data from you, such as –


·    Description of the value-added rubber products you
manufacture and market along with 8-digit HS Code Number,

·    Domestic market size of the product at current market
prices and your market share (%),

·    Import duty (basic customs duty – standard and
preferential, IGST and total duty) leviable on the product when imported into

·    List of the raw materials, components and consumables
(indigenous and imported) used by you in manufacturing your value-added
product  along with respective HS Code
Numbers (8-digit)

·    Unit value of the inputs at current market prices and
percentage (%) quantum of each of the inputs used by you for manufacturing per
unit of your finished product.

·    Import duty (basic customs duty – standard and
preferential, IGST and total duty) leviable on the inputs when imported into


fully depend on you for authenticated data, as above, to make out fool-proof
cases for rectification of anomalous inverted duty structure before long.


you and wishing you a very happy, healthy and prosperous New Year!



In one of the 37 available data channels

In the section that follows, I will be focusing on the core principals of BLE technology. This segment also explains the main function of each layer in the protocol stack.


BLE’s protocol stack has many layers which defines the network and each of them plays a significant role in making a device function properly. These layers are classified under the BLE protocol stack’s two main components, the host and the controller.The controller consists of the physical layer, the link layer and the host controller interface.

The physical layer contains analog communications circuitry used for converting analog signals into digital signals. BLE operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band and can communicate with a wide spectrum of 40 Radio Frequency (from here on out, “RF”) channels and each channel’s bandwidth is 2MHz. Three of these channels are advertising channels and 37 of the channels are data channels. The advertising channels are used when the device wants to broadcast its existence and availability for pairing while the data channels are used for transmitting data between the device with another device. To minimalize the possibility of any radio interference, BLE adopts a technique called frequency hopping spread spectrum. This technique allows selection of any one of the 37 available data channels at a specific time interval where the value of the hop is communicated with the connection is established, this ensures that the data channel is different for every newly established connection.1

The link layer directly interfaces with the physical layer. It contains five states which are standby state for devices which are on an idle, advertising state which a device is sending advertising packets, scanning state where a device is scanning for advertising packets, initiating state for devices that are looking for another device to connect and hence, are listening for advertising packets and connection state which includes two sub-states, the master and the slave. In BLE, information is exchanged via packets. There are two kinds of packets the advertising packet and the data packets. The advertising packets which devices use to locate and pair with other BLE devices or broadcast its signal to neighbouring BLE devices. As BLE contains 40 channels, the channels 37, 38 and 39 are used for advertising packets while channels between 0 and 36 are used for data packets. Both of these packets have a similar packet structure split into 6 blocks, the preamble, access address, header, length, data and Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).  The preamble is an eight-bit value used for synchronization and timing estimation at the receiver. It will always be 0xAA for broadcasted packets. The access address which is a 32-bit value, is also fixed for broadcasting packets, set to 0x8E89BED6

1 Bluetooth Low Energy – Part 1: Introduction To BLE. (n.d.). Retrieved January 25, 2018, from

SNC2D greenhouse effect. Why Are Fossil Fuels Problematic?Over

SNC2D Climate Change Culminating Activity Friday, January 19, 2018Group MembersZaid AlnemerTomi Paghubasan                                               Ava Yassin                                                                                        Period 1Rowed Yakhni                                                                              Ms.YounesWhat Are Fossil Fuels?Fossil fuels are as the name suggests are derivatives of plant and animals that are millions of years old. There are 3 types of fossil fuels: Coal, Oil/Petroleum, and Natural Gas. Approximately 86% of the world’s energy is generated by fossil fuels. But there are many advantages to fossil fuels. For one, they are non-renewable, which means once we use them up we won’t they’re gone for good and we won’t be able to use them for a long time. Fossil fuels are depleting at a fast rate and are projected to run within as little as a 100 years. Fossil fuels also cause several environmental hazards. They release carbon dioxide when they are burnt and carbon dioxide is one of the primary gases responsible for global warming. Fossil fuels also release nitrogen oxides such as nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds or hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide when burnt. The burning of fossil fuels has a severe effect on planet earth and is one of the main causes of global warming and the greenhouse effect. Why Are Fossil Fuels Problematic?Over 35 Billion tons of carbon dioxide are released in the air every year, and the biggest contributor to our insane carbon dioxide emissions is the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to climate change, global warming, and the greenhouse effect, so these extremely high annual carbon dioxide emissions are just destroying our planet. We need to cut down on the burning of fossil fuels so that the fossil fuels and our planet will last longer. We need to start using other methods of energy production.What Is Uranium Energy?Uranium is a heavy silver metal which is being used as a prevalent source of nuclear energy for over 60 years. Uranium is found in 1 in 250,000 – 500,000 rocks and is an abundant resource in the Earth. Unextractable traces of Uranium can be found everywhere in rivers, oceans, food, and even humans. Since Uranium is radioactive and is located everywhere it contributes to the background radiation of the Earth. The energy from Uranium is extracted at nuclear power plants by a process called milling which involves crushing the uranium rock into a very fine powder and combining it with water to create a semi-fluid substance. This substance is then added to an alkaline solution or sulfuric acid which precipitates over 95% of the uranium which is sent to another plant to refine it and turn it into power. Uranium can also be extracted directly from the extraction site by pumping a solution of water and chemicals directly into the Earth and precipitating the uranium directly from the Earth.Why Is Uranium EnergyBetter Than Fossil Fuels?Uranium energy is more cost effective than most fossil fuels, per one-kilowatt hour it’s 80 cents less expensive than natural gas, $1.80 less than oil, and only 4 cents more expensive than coal.Uranium is very abundant in the Earth crust and can be reprocessed to extract more energy whereas fossil fuels are non-renewableUranium energy doesn’t release any harmful greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide or methane5 fuel pellets of Uranium is energy equivalent to 149 gallons of oil, 1780 pounds of coal, and 17,000 cubic feet of natural gasExtracting and Refining Uranium is safer than coal with fewer deaths per year relating to retrieving and processing the UraniumUranium waste can be controlled with concrete pits making them unable to cause harm to any living organisms unless in close proximityWhat is HydroElectric Energy?Hydroelectric Energy is energy and electricity collected from water from sources like Dams, Rivers, Waterfalls, etc. It supplies Canada with a vast amount of electricity, specifically 63.1% of its energy output. Hydroelectric energy uses a generator named a “Hydroelectric power-generating unit”. Hydroelectricity is generated by the force of falling water. The water is held behind a dam, forming an artificial lake, or in other words a reservoir. The force of the water being released from the reservoir allows the dam to spin blades of a giant turbine. As the turbine spins, it conducts energy which is transferred into electricity. After passing through the turbine, the water will move to the other side of the dam into the river. Why Is Hydroelectric Energy Better Than Fossil Fuels?Hydroelectric Energy uses cleaner sources and has an unbelievable amount of water to use.Due to Canada’s location we have access to the most lakes in the entire world. Using Hydroelectric energy in Canada would not only be productive but there are more opportunities for us to do so.Hydroelectric Energy allows countries to produce energy as an independent country, not needing to have international disputes with different countries on trade matters and territory problems.The energy generated from the Hydroelectric Generators relies on the water cycle, which is driven by the sun. This means that it is a renewable power source, and can be more reliable than fossil fuels that continuously dispose of themselves as we use them.Most Hydropower facilities can go from zero power, to maximum output. This is because Hydropower plants can directly transfer electricity and energy to a power grid instantly, so in a case of a power outage Hydroelectric facilities would start up power grids instantly.