Terrerism label of “terrorist” is highly pejorative– it

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Terrerism label of “terrorist” is highly pejorative– it

Terrerism in Pakistan

Various
Definitions of Terrorism

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Controversy
in Defining Terrorism

The difficulty in
defining “terrorism” is in agreeing on a basis for determining when the use of
violence

(directed at
whom, by whom, for what ends) is legitimate; therefore, the modern definition
of terrorism is

inherently
controversial. The use of violence for the achievement of political ends is
common to state and

non-state groups. The majority of
definitions in use has been written by agencies directly associated

with government,
and is systematically biased to exclude governments from the definition. The

contemporary
label of “terrorist” is highly pejorative– it denotes a lack of
legitimacy and morality. As a

practical matter,
so-called acts of “terrorism” or terrorism are often a tactic committed by the
actors as part

of a
larger military or geo-political agenda.

                                                                                                                                
United Nations

The UN
General Assembly Resolution

49/60
(adopted on December 9, 1994),

titled
“Measures to Eliminate

International
Terrorism,” contains a

provision
describing terrorism:

Criminal
acts intended or calculated to

provoke
a state of terror in the general

public,
a group of persons or particular

persons
for political purposes are in any

circumstance
unjustifiable, whatever the

considerations
of a political,

philosophical,
ideological, racial, ethnic,

religious
or any other nature that may be

invoked
to justify them.

The
UN Member States still have no

agreed-upon
definition of terrorism, and

this
fact has been a major obstacle to

meaningful
international

countermeasures.
Terminology

consensus
would be necessary for a

single
comprehensive convention

 

 

on
terrorism, which some countries favor in place of the present 12 piecemeal
conventions and protocols. Cynics have often commented that one state’s
“terrorist” is another state’s “freedom fighter”. The
Arab Convention for the Suppression
of Terrorism was adopted by
the Council of Arab Ministers of the Interior
and the Council of Arab Ministers of
Justice in Cairo, Egypt in 1998.Terrorism was defined in the convention as:

 

Any
act or threat of violence, whatever its motives or purposes, that occurs in the
advancement of

an
individual or collective criminal agenda and seeking to sow panic among people,
causing fear

by
harming them, or placing their lives, liberty or security in danger, or seeking
to cause damage

to
the environment or to public or private installations or property or to
occupying or seizing them,

or
seeking to jeopardize national resources.

UN
Security Council Resolution 1566 (2004) gives
a definition:

criminal
acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or
serious

bodily
injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in
the general

public
or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or
compel a

government
or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.

A UN
panel, on March 17, 2005, described terrorism as any act
“intended to cause death or serious

bodily
harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a
population or compelling a

government
or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act.”European
Union

The
European Union defines terrorism for legal/official purposes in Art.1 of the Framework
Decisionon

Combating Terrorism (2002). This
provides that terrorist offences are certain criminal offences set out in a
list comprised largely of serious offences against persons and property which:

given
their nature or context, may seriously damage a country or an international
organization

where
committed with the aim of: seriously intimidating a population; or unduly
compelling a

Government
or international organization to perform or abstain from performing any act; or

seriously
destabilizing or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic
or social

structures
of a country or an international organization.

United
Kingdom

The United
Kingdom’s Terrorism Act 2000 defines terrorism to include an act “designed
seriously to

interfere
with or seriously to disrupt an electronic system”. An act of violence is not
even necessary under

this
definition.

United
States

The
United States has defined terrorism under the Federal Criminal Code. Title 18
of the United States

Code
defines terrorism and lists the crimes associated with terrorism. In Section
2331 of Chapter 113(B),

defines
terrorism as: “…activities that involve violent… or life-threatening acts… that
are a violation of the

criminal
laws of the United States or of any State and… appear to be intended (i) to
intimidate or coerce a

civilian
population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or
coercion; or (iii) to affect

the
conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping;
and…(C) occur primarily

within
the territorial jurisdiction of the United States…”

US Patriot Act of 2001: terrorist
activities include


threatening, conspiring or attempting to hijack airplanes, boats, buses or
other vehicles.


threatening, conspiring or attempting to commit acts of violence on any
“protected” persons,

suc;h
as government officials


any crime committed with “the use of any weapon or dangerous device,”
when the intent of the

crime
is determined to be the endangerment of public safety or substantial property
damage

rather
than for “mere personal monetary gain

FBI definition
of terrorism: The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property
to intimidate or coerce a
Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of
political or

social
objectives.

U.S. Army Manual definition
terrorism is the “calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of
unlawful

violence
to inculcate fear. It is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or
societies to attain political, religious, or ideological goals.” U.S. Army
Field Manual No. FM 3-0, Chapter 9, 37 (14 June

2001).

 

 

Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms defines
terrorism as: The calculated use of

unlawful
violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce
or to intimidate

governments
or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious,
or ideological.

Types
Of Terrorism in PAKISTAN:

There are different types of terrorism in Pakistan
which are these;

•       Civil disorder

•       Political terrorism

•       Economic terrorism

•       Official or state terrorism

•       Media and information war

 

 

Civil disorder

 

Groups of people often conduct civil disorder
in the form of a protest, which is often staged in response to an unpopular
political action or policy. Individuals participate in civil disorder with the
goal of sending a message that the public is unhappy, and that changes should
be made. While most protests begin, or have the goal of remaining, non-violent,
riots do occur in which people are injured or killed, and property is
destroyed. Recently protests of tehreek e labaik ya rasul Allah in faizabad is
one of the examples of civil disorder.

Political terrorism

Political terrorism entails violent acts perpetrated against
citizens, with the goal of making a point with governmental leaders1 .In karachi few years
back this kind of situation were imposed on citizens. MQM leaders gave
statements against the national interest and cause unrest in the city. Their
party members did violent activities to pressurize the Govt.

Economic Terrorism :The term economic terrorism or financial terrorism is strictly defined to
indicate an attempt at economic destabilization by a group. In Pakistan the
threat of economic terrorism always looms large, not only because of external
elements, but due to the self-interest of individuals that are forever present, at all
levels of the country’s power corridors. Pakistan suffered a lot of
financial losses due to economic terrorism, and as per official Ministry of
Finance estimates, the losses amounted to $40-$45 billion dollars
approximately. The Pakistan Cricket Board estimated a loss of $10.5 million
revenue by the ICC decision, not to host the world cup in Pakistan. Pakistan’s
civil and military infrastructure bore the serious brunt of economic terrorism
from 2008-2010, the years which saw airports, naval and air bases coming into
the destructive fold of sabotage, unleashed by miscreant groups. Pakistan
has lost approximately Rs. 8264.4 billion ($102.5 billion), both in direct and
indirect costs to incidents of terrorism during the past 14 years of the war on
terror, as per economic survey 2013-2014.. 1

State Terrorism :State terrorism
refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or
against its own people.

Indian state was involved in
perpetrating terrorism and terror financing in Pakistan and the confessions by
Indian intelligence agent and serving officer of Indian Navy Commander
Kulbhushan Jhadav have exposed Indian design to destabilise Pakistan and
sabotage the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

Media and
information war:  Information
warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and
management of information and communication technology (ICT) in
pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. Information warfare may
involve collection of tactical information, assurance(s) that
one’s own information is valid, spreading
of propaganda or disinformation to demoralize  manipulate the
enemy and the public, undermining the quality of opposing force information and
denial of information-collection opportunities to opposing forces. Information
warfare is closely linked to psychological warfare.

 PAKISTAN

A beautiful land of 200 million
Muslims & 1.5 million non Muslims . it is the 33rd-largest country spanning
881,913 square kilometres . Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries in that
it is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam.A country with
finest armed forces ,great human resources ,economic ,agriculture  and industrial potential. Pakistan used to be
a very beautiful place where peace and harmony prevailed. Foreign Tourists used
to visit Pakistan Northern areas of to explore the natural beauty and for
mountaineering purpose.

The culture of Pakistan”music,
traditions, taste and cuisine “were famous all round the globe

 

 

 

 

 

BUT THEN

THINGS SUDDENLY  GOT CHANGE

 

Major Causes Of Terrorism in Pakistan

Supporting US-war against soviet union
(1980)
9/11 attacks (2001)Becoming the part of
foreign game
Drone attacks (2004-2015)
Foreign involvement (CIA,RAW,MOSSAD &
MI-15)
Laal Mosque  Operation(2007)
Re-Emerging of Talibans

Supporting US-war against soviet
union (1980)

The Soviet Union and
Pakistan first established the diplomatic and bilateral relations on 1 May
1948.

For the most of the
Cold War, the Soviet Union’s relations with Pakistan have seen ups and downs
during the different periods of Pakistan’s history. In 1947-50s, Soviet Union
enjoyed relatively healthy and strong relations with Pakistan when it was under
the civilian control but the relations went ultimately cold soon after the
U.S.-backed 1958 military coup d’état, although attempts to warm the relations
were made after the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war and in the mid 1970s, the relations
were quickly improved and warmed.citation needed

In response to ongoing
Soviet support to communist Afghanistan regarding the Durand Line issue during
the late 1970s and 1980s, Pakistan began to support Mujahedeen rebels
attempting to overthrow the Soviet-backed communist regime and was later aided
by the United States, United Kingdom, China and Saudi Arabia. This later led to
the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Here start the main story which makes in
Pakistan creation of Talban, Kalashnikov culture extremism.

September 11 attacks (2001)

The September 11 attacks (also referred to
as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic
terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday,
September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others,
and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage.

It’s hard to fathom Pakistan without
constant bomb blasts, a crippling economy, a mismatched budget and countless
lives lost in a war more than half of the population does not understand, but
life in Pakistan before the atrocious attacks of 9/11 was a rather normal, peaceful
one. As per the nature of the article, various people were asked what life felt
like before the war on terror began; the majority opined that everyday routine
and other matters were never as bloody and gory as they are today. First off
they claim that the paranoia and constant worry people experience wasn’t this
rampant before. If there were bomb blasts, there were only a few hither and
thither. However, after the war on terror and the Pakistani government’s open
alliance with the US government in a “crackdown” on insurgents and other
rebellious factions, life in Pakistan got a lot more complicated and violent.
To understand the nature of the US-Pakistan alliance in the war on terror, one
must remember the hypocritical and shady businesses of both governments in
funding the very same groups they attack today: The Taliban. It is understood
that both regimes supported these groups until 9/11. Hence the strength and
power of the Taliban is a product of the support rendered by the US and
Pakistani governments. Pakistan Become the part of foreign game.

 

“The US
has been bombing Pakistan with drones since June 2004. The CIA was responsible
for all US drone strikes in the country until May 2016 when a US Special Forces
drone strike ended the spy agency’s exclusive hold on the drone war in
Pakistan.

The
strikes have been targeting al Qaeda and its allies, including the Afghan
Taliban, as well as the Pakistan Taliban or TTP – domestic terrorists dedicated
to overthrowing the Pakistani government. Hundreds of civilians have also
perished, including women and children” ( The Bureau of Investigative Journalism)

“According to a new report from The
Intercept, nearly 90 percent of people killed in recent drone strikes in
Afghanistan “were not the intended targets” of the attacks”(The Drone Papers)

 

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