Union (EU) citizenship was first applied with the Maastricht Treaty. When we
look at it from its establishment until today, progress and integration are
always in the economic direction, and the EU’s efforts to integrate politically
The first stage
is the Free Trade Zone. With this phase realized with the 1957 EEC, the removal
of the tariffs and tariffs aimed at is aimed at ensuring free movement. The
second stage is the Customs Union. Here, in addition to the first phase, a
common trade policy was aimed against third countries. Targets were reached in
the field of industry in 1968 and in agriculture in 1970. The third stage is
the Common Market. With the first two being valid, the free movement of a
common policy such as goods, services, people and capital is aimed. In the
fourth stage, the Economic and Monetary Union is located. The single currency
and monetary policy aimed at this was also realized. Finally, the fifth stage,
together with the Political Union, is not fully achieved in the common defense
and common foreign policy.
The EU is in
the fifth stage, which has completed the fourth stage. When we look at the
goals that we have put into practice and realized up to now, we see that they
are all economically based. The problem of the EU, which is stranded in the
fifth stage, is legitimacy and identity. There are two views on EU identity.
The concept of Pan-nationalism based on classical culture and the other is the
understanding of post-nationalism based on flexible culture. In the classical
sense, we can define culture as a genetic code of a society, tradition, belief,
religious elements and symbols that are conveyed from the innermost circle.
Within this framework, European culture is the product of three elements;
Christianity, ancient Greek thought system and Roman law. The European
definition is shaped by the Roman law, which is supported with the Greek
culture, and the church acts as an umbrella. Later, the principles brought by the
Enlightenment were added slowly to this definition. Europe was now the most
advanced, the most civilized, and the civilized. Europe has been presented as a
model to the whole world.