The and captain, reported that the three key
The Portuguese, in their striking investigation along the shorelines of the Middle East, they have a basic reason to colonize, which is to cruise round the mainland to the flavor markets of the east. In any case, in the process they build up an exchanging interest and an enduring nearness in the Persian Gulf.
Part 1: The Discovery and Conquest of the Arabian Gulf
Afonso de Albuquerque a famous Portuguese explorer and captain, reported that the three key strong points of Goa, Hormuz, and Malacca all would ensure Portuguese major control on the most important routes in the Indian Ocean. Through which they will be able to control the economic shipping in the region, plus all those three key point lay on a significant commercial and political centre. (Salman, 2004)1
Before Portuguese arrival to the Middle East
The Gulf and its neighbors were the main natural route between India, Mesopotamia and Egypt in Hellenistic times. Commercial contact between India and the Gulf depended on the arrival of the monsoon winds, and the amount of rain they brought with them, because the monsoon was the governing factor controlling shipping in this region.
Through this huge and complex commercial network of trade in the Indian Ocean before the arrival of the Portuguese, this have opened the eyes of the Portuguese to contribute this economic network which was the diversion of trade and goods direct to Lisbon. To this end they set up factories along the Indian Ocean coasts, built military installations and naval bases. Moreover, Portuguese took control of many of the strategic entries to the ocean, such as the Cape of Good Hope, Socotra at the entrance of the Red Sea, Bahrain and
Hormuz in the Gulf, as well as Malacca at the entrance to the South China Sea. At the same time, the Portuguese used force to prevent the export of Malabar spices along the traditional Muslim sea routes to the Mediterranean, in particular through the Red Sea – but they were unable to control it. (Salman, 2004)1
Portuguese First Attempt of colonization
For almost 150 years Portugal ruled the Persian Inlet zone. Ormuz was viewed by Albuquerque as the third key to the Portuguese Realm in Asia (the other two were Goa and Malacca).
The main endeavor to vanquish Ormuz was done in 1507 by Afonso de Albuquerque. He, at the leader of a little Portuguese armada of 7 boats and 500 men, continued to Ormuz. Amid the voyage he raged and vanquished the towns of Kuryat, Muscat and Khor Fakkan. Diversely the towns of Kalhat and Sohar communicated their readiness to wind up noticeably tributary to the Lord of Portugal. The Portuguese fleet anchored in front of the town of Ormuz. The Lord of the city was set up for an assault and he could depend on 15,000/20,000 equipped men. Albuquerque was fearless and he requested that the Ruler pay a tribute and turn into a vassal of Portugal, yet the Lord’s answer was sly, a straightforward endeavor to extend the arrangements. Following three days of holding up Albuquerque assaulted the city and the Ruler’s armada was totally devastated. Seeing the entire annihilation of his powers, the Lord sent a banner of ceasefire offering to convey up the city to the Portuguese.In September 1507 Albuquerque closed a settlement with the Ruler of Hormuz, under which the Lord needed to pay to the Ruler of Portugal a yearly tribute. After this Albuquerque and his men started to assemble the stronghold, the primary stone was laid on 24 October 1507, the fortification was named “Nossa Senhora da Victória”. Amid the development of the fortification rebellion emerged among the Portuguese. Some Portuguese skippers, with the assistance of the Ruler of Ormuz, opposed Albuquerque. In January 1508, following a few days of conflict with the Ormuz’s powers, Albuquerque was compelled to surrender the city. This was the principal endeavor to challenge the Portuguese administer in the Persian Inlet. (Ramerini, 2015)2
Portuguese Second attempt
The second endeavor was made in 1515. In Walk 1515 Albuquerque with a power of 27 ships, 1,500 Portuguese and 700 Malabarese warriors touched base before Ormuz. He was resolved to take the town for the sake of the Ruler of Portugal and this time he was effective. The stronghold was involved by the Portuguese on 1 April 1515. In 1521 the ruler of Ormuz defied the Portuguese, however the last pounded the disobedience and put another lord on the position of royalty. In 1523, Dom Luís de Menezes involved Take off, which had revolted, and after this, he continued to Qeshm, where another settlement was finished up with the new Lord and a feitoria was set up. In 1526 Lopo Vaz de Sampayo, the Legislative leader of Portuguese India (1526-1529), decreased to submission Mascate and Khalat, which had revolted. In 1542/43 the whole Traditions obligations of Ormuz were doled out to the Ruler of Portugal. The years in the vicinity of 1550 and 1560 were a very long time of proceeded with fighting with the Turks for the matchless quality in the Persian Bay. In 1550/51 the Portuguese vanquished from the Turks the post of El Katiff (Al Qatif) in Arabia. In 1551/52, so as to help Ormuz’s resistance a fort was built in Mascate. The Turks were resolved to deliver retribution and in 1551/52 they assaulted Mascate and sacked the town. In 1559 the Turks assaulted the Portuguese fort of Bahrain, however following a while of attack, they were compelled to pull back. In 1581, Mascate was again annihilated by the Turks. In 1582 the Lord of Lara (Larack, an island close Ormuz), who had revolted, laid attack to the post of Ormuz, yet the Portuguese prevailing with regards to heading out the trespassers and they thusly assaulted Lara’s fortification of Xamel, which was taken by the Portuguese. Finally, in 1588 the Mascate’s posts were again modified. This time the town was additionally invigorated and in adjacent Matara (Matrah) a fortress was constructed, as well. In 1602 Shah Abbas removed the Portuguese from Bahrain.
Ormuz utilized for its arrangements of water the wells of Comorão on the Persian coast. Here the Portuguese had a stronghold. It was vanquished by the Persians in 1615 (1614). In 1616 Soar, which had revolted, was caught by a Portuguese armada and the Ruler was killed. In 1619 the Portuguese fortification of Ormuz had an army of 500-700 troopers. The stronghold of Khawr Fakkan (Corfação) was worked in 1620 by Gaspar Leite. On 8 May 1621 Rui Freire de Andrada, the “General do Blemish de Ormuz e costa da Persia e Arabia”, started to construct a fort in Queixome (Qeshm), tthis fort was built to have the control of the island’s water wells. The working of this fortress was viewed as a demonstration of open hostility by the Shah of Persia, who battled against the Portuguese. In 1622, the Middle Easterners, who had joined the Persians, prevailing with regards to catching Julfar from the Portuguese. On 11 February 1622, the Portuguese fort of Queixome, after a weak protection, was compelled to surrender to a joint Persian-English armed force. On 20 Febraury 1622 the Persian flotilla of more than 3,000 men with the assistance of 6 English boats blockaded the Portuguese fort of Ormuz. Ormuz was lost by the Portuguese on 3 May 1622. The whole Portuguese populace, around 2,000 people, were sent to Mascate. (Ramerini, 2015)2
Portuguese Third attempt
Amid the decade after the fall of Ormuz, the Portuguese, under the order of Rui Freire de Andrada, attempted a few times (1623, 1624, 1625, 1627) to recover the fortness. The last endeavor in 1631 was a political one, yet every one of these endeavors failed. After the loss of Ormuz the Portuguese built up their base in Mascate, and in 1623, a feitoria (trading station) was set up in Bassora at the mouth of the Euphrates Stream. In 1623 Rui Freire reoccupied the fortification of Soar, which had been taken in 1622 by the Persians. Around the same time another base was built up in Cassapo (Kashab) on the Musandam Peninsula. Kalba (Quelba) was vanquished by Gaspar Leite in 1624. The fortification of Mada was vanquished in May 1624 by Mateus de Siebra. In 1624/25, following a bargain with the Persians, a feitoria and a stronghold were set up in Congo (Bandar-e Kong) on the Persian shore of the Persian Bay. In 1631 a Portuguese fort was worked in Julfar, a vital key point on the Musandam Promontory. This town delighted in amid Portuguese manage incredible success as the local exchanging entrepôt. In September 1633 Rui Freire de Andrada, the immense hero of these years, died and his body was buried in the church of St. Agostinho in Mascate. In 1633/35 peace arrangements were finished up with the English and the Persians.
The Portuguese control in the Persian Gulf was about more steady after the loss of Ormuz than some time recently. Actually a few strongholds and feitorias in great spots like for example, Soar, Julfar, Doba, Libedia, Mada, Khor Fakkan, Caçapo (Khasab), Congo (Kung) and Bassora were built up. In August 1648, the Arabs besieged Mascate and on 31 October an arrangement was marked between the two rivals. The terms were as per as the following: The Portuguese should wreck to the ground the fortness of Kuriyat, Doba and Matara. In January 1650 Mascate, the last Portuguese base in Arabia, was taken by the Omanites. By the loss of Mascate the Portuguese were denied of their last fortification in the region of the Persian Gulf and consequently the supposed “Portuguese period” arrived at an end on the Persian Gulf. (Ramerini, 2015)2
Part 2: Portuguese settlement in Bahrain
2.1 The Portuguese coming towards the Bahrain Islands
Towards the end of the fifteenth century the Arabs, particularly those of Oman and the Yemen, were the primary ocean merchants of the East. They held a position which was to some degree like the beforehand held by the Venetians in Europe. Their very much prepared armadas were sufficiently solid to shield their exchange from the privateers who around then, and for a long time some time recently, swarmed the shorelines of the Persian Inlet. (Taylor and Francis Online , 2011)3
2.2 The Portuguese arrival to Bahrain Island 1521 – 1602
It is believed that the Main Portuguese explorer to visit Bahrain was Duarte Barbosa in 1485. He was a Portuguese writer and Portuguese India officer in the vicinity of 1500 and 1516– 17, with the post of scrivener in Cannanore industrial facility and sometimes interpreter of the local language (Malayalam). His “Book of Duarte Barbosa” (Livro de Duarte Barbosa) is one of the most punctual cases of Portuguese travel writing, composed around 1516, not long after the landing in the Indian Sea. In 1519 Duarte Barbosa set out on the main undertaking to circumnavigate the world, drove by his brother by marriage Ferdinand Magellan, passing away in 1521 at the devour of rajah Humabon in Cebu at the Philippines.
At a certain point, in 1481, Bahrain was visited by the famous Middle Easterner Cartographer Ahmed Container Majid, who was best known for helping Vasco De Gama (the Portuguese guide) arrived to India from Africa.
He gave a contemporary record of the nation that the principal Portuguese would have seen: “In Awal (Bahrain) there are 360 towns and sweet water can be found in various spots. A most superb al-Qasasir, where a man can jump into the salt ocean with a skin and can fill it with fresh water while he is submerged in the salt water. Around Bahrain are pearl fisheries and various islands all of which have pearl fisheries and associated with this exchange are 1,000 boats” (Droodkin, 2011)4
2.3 Portuguese settlement in Bahrain
After the entire blending with the Portuguese for a few years, it was normal that they would soon powerfully attack Bahrain and assume control over the island. That occurred in 1521 when a Portuguese authority, Antonio Correira, attacked with his armed force (endorsed by the Ruler of Portugal at the time) keeping in mind the end goal to take control of the riches from the Pearl Business. This intrusion had additionally brought about the last end of Jabrid administration (It is said that Correira’s escutcheon includes the guillotined leader of the last Lord of the Jabrids, Ruler Murqin). After the attack, Correira was said to have ruled Bahrain for the following couple of decades (yet generally, Portuguese administer went on for a long time).
Yet, the heritage that the Portuguese left here was the Qal’at al (Bahrain Fortification) which they’ve worked in the Karbabad region of Bahrain, as per the decision framework at the time. This Fortification still stands (Droodkin, 2011)4
2.4 Portuguese Fort of Qala’at al Bahrain (Bahrain Fort)
Remains of Qal’ At Al-Bahrain (sixteenth century) or Portuguese Fortress. The Fort comprises of three large fortresses and the remainders of two towers in the center and full dividers connecting the three fortifications together. It is encompassed by a trench. It lies on the northern shoreline of the island on the westernmost purpose of an open bay near the city of Manama.
The islands of Bahrain were under Portuguese control from the center of the sixteenth century. Around then the Portuguese – who had their principle base in the post of Hormuz – commanded the exchange the Persian Inlet. The Portuguese control over the islands of Bahrain kept going until the mid-seventeenth century.
The fortification was most likely possessed by the Portuguese in 1559 under the summon of D. Antao de Noronha. After the success the Portuguese broadened and braced the Bedouin post who had involved, it appears that to the plan work of the fortresses have taken an interest the Portuguese planner Inofre de Carvalho. A plant of the post of Bahrain is displayed in the book “Livro das Plantas de todas as fortalezas, Cidades and povoaçoens do Estado da Índia Oriental” composed by Pedro Barreto de Resende. The Portuguese were removed from the islands of Bahrain in 1602 by the powers of Shah Abbas. (Ramerini, 2015)5
Part 3: The end of the Portuguese rule over Bahrain:
The reason why the Portuguese political and military authorities break down in the Gulf during the 17th century is the fall of Hormuz in 1622, moreover the policy of Shah Abbas towards the Arab tribes also lied to the collapse of the Portuguese colonialism, as well as the ambitions of the English and the Dutch to have the Gulf area to them self.
3.1 The fall of Hormuz :
For start, the security was so bad; clearly that was why the Safavid Lãr broke in during (1607-1608). Therefore and the collapse of Hormuz kingdom was inevitably anticipated since the 16th century accumulated diplomacy mistakes.
Not only had that but Shah Abbas thought that the Portuguese fortress were a thorn in his side, he was compelled to buy their products with high prices and to us their ships.
In 1618, a peace treaty was signed between ottomans and Shah Abbas as a result for that he got attention on the Gulf and to get rid of the Portuguese by the support of Arab tribes from Lãr and the Persian coast, as well as the pressure over Spain by the Dutch.
The first thing in the strategy for the Shah Abbas is to cultivate relations with the Great Britain (aka: England), also to deploy Persian satellites against Hormuz.
Qamber beg, khän of Lär was the pawn to do action against Kingdome of Hormuz because the unpaid muqarrarlyas that was suspended during Albuquerque’s time.
Nonetheless, the Khän did what he could to obstruct the trade of Hormuz. Differences also arose over the silk trade.
After that in 1607 the Persians occupied 2 wells near Gombroon that drew the water from it, therefore it had to have negotiations between the Portuguese and the Persians, to return the wells, Also the defensive works that been built to the Portuguese fortress on the shore.
Hormuz gradually has been isolated, because of most areas been under the control of the Arabs or the Persians, especially both of them are diametrically opposed the Portuguese, as well as the loss of the pearl bank of the western Gulf that meant less revenue and losing influence over the Arab tribes.
Despite that rift between the Persian and the Portuguese – Spanish union, the diplomatic channels were open. Shah Abbas tried to remind the special
envoy Diogo de Santa Anna that his army with nobody helps defeated the Ottomans and won it with merit.
Obviously Shah Abbas did not tack kingdom Hormuz from his mind, so kept trying till 1622 when the disaster struck, the captain sum a mere dozen open Boats with 447 men, that did not work because not one single vessel reach more than Muscat.
Finally, the lack of understanding and the hostility between the Portuguese captains that led to the fall of Hormuz.
3.2 The East India companies:
After the voyages of Christopher Columbus and Vasco de Gama, the Iberian powers were interest especially England, when the adventurer Anthony Jenkinson was really enthusiastic to make the English commercial in the East. He tried to open up commercial relations with Persia, but the Shah Tahmasp rejects the deal because they were ‘unbelievers’.
By 1600 the English were ready to sail to the east around the Hope of using accounts written by a handful of English adventurers like Ralph Fitch, the beginning in 1601 under James Lancaster of the Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies.
This was the beginning of the English East India Company (ETC). Though in due course the Company succeeded in securing a foothold in India, its early voyages were directed towards the Spice Islands, and especially the Moluccas. From 1613 Sumatra became the chief supplier of pepper to the Company. However, the diversity of its activities, the Company now held the existing carrying trade and found a market for English woolens. The Company was soon dispatching ships to Gujarat and to the Coromandel Coast. The first ship arrived to Gujarati port of Surat in 1608. Surat became the first English headquarters and the center of the company’s commercial operations with the Gulf and the Red Sea.
From 1614, the English also tried to gain a foothold in Persia. The large stocks of cloth there must have influenced these efforts. In 1616, with the help of Robert Sherley, three identical Persian farmers were obtained from the Shah ordering the governors of the ports in Persia to assist English vessels in the Gulf. Quickly the English established themselves in Jask, in the south the Portuguese were occupied with Hormuz, just inside the Gulf. In 1619, the Company established a factory there to facilitate overland trade with the Persian capital at Isfahan. From this strategic point, and notwithstanding Portuguese control of the Persian coast, the English aimed to break into the Persian trade. (Salman, 2004) 1
Since the 16th century Portuguese were the rulers of the trade in the Indian Ocean through them. The Portuguese were viewed as brutal overseers, so hated that once they had executed the island’s richest traders in 1602. This sparked an uprising against the Portuguese regime. What was interesting at the time was that this coincided with many regional disputes between the Portuguese and other European Powers in the region. During the massive confusion that swept the region, the Persian Ruler Shah Abbas I of the Safavid Empire, invaded the island (generally seen with support from the people) and had absorbed the island into the Safavid Empire. (Droodkin, 2011)4