The and insulin resistance in the body leading

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The and insulin resistance in the body leading

 

The
excessive accumulated fat in the body can be associated with serious health
risks if not controlled. According to World Health Organization, up to 20% of
the developed countries population is suffering from obesity associated with
hypertension4. Hypertension is a disease in which the blood pressure
exceeds 140/90 mmHg. Obesity-associated hypertension is
highly affected by the activation of the renin-angiotensin system5.
An experiment including transgenic mice has been
done. The mice overexpress an enzyme called 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
type1 in fat tissue which leads to an increase in the enzyme activity and
replicates high blood pressure5. Interestingly, the same result is
seen in obese humans5. Diabetes is also another disease that is
associated with obesity. In the USA, it has
been estimated that weight gain is responsible for 27% of recently diagnosed
diabetic patients4. However, for
every additional unit of BMI over 22kg/m2 the risk of developing
diabetes is approximately 25% 4.  The great amount
of fat in obese patients increases glucose intolerance and insulin resistance
in the body leading to diabetes6. Increased secretion of a fat cell
specific-protein called resistin is related to the reduction of cellular
insulin sensitivity7. In contrast, adiponectin (an adipocyte
specific-secretory protein) is inversely proportional to insulin sensitivity7.
As
a result, diabetes is portrayed by low levels of adiponectin that is
comparative in structure to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) which seems, by
all accounts, to be expanded in abdominal fat tissue7. These
factors play a part in the release of free fatty acids7.
FFAs effect insulins uptake by the liver, and they contribute in
increasing the release of hepatic gluconeogenesis and hepatic glucose which is
observed in obese people7. Furthermore, a study done by Willett et al
showed that overweight and obese women have an increased risk of having CHD by
2 and 3.6 folds respectively4. CHD is a cardiovascular disease
characterized by visceral adipose tissue that is highly connected with insulin
resistance 4. Increasing the consumption of the total body oxygen is portrayed
by the expanded tissue mass and the oxidative demands of metabolically active
adipose tissue which is related to cardiac output4. statistics have
shown that approximately 20% of all female have breast cancer. 4. As Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has estimated, obesity
and sedentary lifestyle are the reason behind 25% of breast cancer cases worldwide.
4. The risks of getting a breast cancer have been
accompanied by having high levels of estrogen that fat tissues produce. 8. Another cause is
the DNA damage due to the chronic low level inflammation that obese people often
have which can, over time, cause cancer8. Obese people may also develop
gallstones. Gallstones are formed from a combination of cholesterol, calcium bilirubin,
and calcium carbonate that gets concreted in the gallbladder 9.
Researchers have found that obesity cause the body to
produce high levels of cholesterol which leads to produce bile which contains
more cholesterol than the can dissolve, and gallstones can be formed from the undissolved
cholesterol. 10. In addition, obesity lead
to inflammation in the bones and joints that is called osteoarthritis.
This disease is characterized by soft, frayed, and thinned cartilage with
eburnation of subchondral bone and outgrowth of marginal osteophytes11.
Moreover, the
synovial fluid changes in character and composition in obese people and it
loses its characteristic capacity to behave in a jelly like manner and act as a
shock absorber when the joint is loaded11. Therefore, the cartilage
has to sustain more load and impact11. Respiratory system is also negatively
affected by overweight, and that affect appear as sleep apnea which causes
repeated episodes of blockage of airflow as a result of occlusion in the upper
airway during sleep12. These episodes may be caused by recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturations and
arousals from sleep12. Although, the exact association
between sleep apnea and obesity is still vague. However, it might be
related to the effect of fat deposition on the airway changer in upper airway
functions13.

 

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