The instability of our planet and irregular environment

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The instability of our planet and irregular environment

The first chapter of this
dissertation refers to environmental problems related to industrial waste water. Special attention is drawn to less availability of drinking water and a
large amount of waste water generation which leading to instability of our
planet and irregular environment changes. Therefore, modern civilization needs
to find new and practical ways to lessen the impacts on this planet. In this
context, oxidation process is more effective treatment. Moreover, advanced
oxidation processes (AOPs) are described as viable alternative to traditional
wastewater treatment.

1.1       
Overview

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Water is a substance
indispensable for life, without which no living being could survive and is a
linkage between the entire planet’s ecosystems. Only 3% of water resources are
fresh and out of this, 2% is trapped in form of ice so remaining 1% of the
planet’s water is left available for human consumption.

Man has always
interacted with the environment, modifying it according to his needs. In this
evolutionary process domestic, industrial and agriculture activities played its
part to acquire meaning to the welfare of modern society. This all leads to an
exponential consumption of raw materials that contribute to the drastic
increase of amount of pollutants discharged into water streams. Among these one
of the major problems that humanity is currently facing is related to the water
and significant issue is related with its quality. The water quality
deterioration ultimately leads towards water scarcity that is an issue of
future concern.

1.2       
Industrial Wastewater & Environmental
Impacts

With the rapid development of industrialization and
the increase of population in the world, global consumption of water has been
increasing. Effluents from industrial waste such as pharmaceutical compounds,
pesticides , non -degradable dyes and other fatty acids are main causes of
surface and groundwater contamination1. Hazardous organic waste from industries mainly from pharmaceutical and
textile are of major concern. The more complex environmental problems associate
with the textile industry due to extensive consumption of carcinogenic dyes2.Most of the dye molecules are toxic, recalcitrant, chemically and
photo-chemically stable and impart undesirable color to the receiving waters,
their release to the environment may pose many serious aesthetical, ecological,
environmental and health hazards. 3-5.
Also, some human and veterinary drugs are being released in the environment
that may lead to the long term adverse effects for aquatic and terrestrial
organisms. Significant concentration has been found in the rivers and other
surface water resources.

Conventional
treatment methods are unable to remove these pollutants from treated industrial
wastewater. Unfortunately, hundreds of organic
pollutants, classified as bio-recalcitrant are not biodegradable and pose
adverse health effects and remain unaffected by Conventional treatment applied
in wastewater treatment plants6, 7. To prevent water resources and environmental pollution, Industrial
Wastewater Treatment is requirement of today’s world. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are the treatment
methods which are used to remove such pollutants.

Some pharmaceutical compounds and
textile pollutants showed resistance towards even advanced wastewater treatment
such as adsorption or granular activated carbon or ozonation 8, 9.Therefore,
there is a need to remove these compounds from water and tertiary treatment
technologies are recommended for this purpose.

Of these AOPs, chemical oxidation using ozone, alone or
in combination with additional physical/chemical agents (i.e., advanced
oxidation) has been proved a highly effective treatment process for emerging
aqueous organic pollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dyes and
natural fatty acids. The use of AOPs for WW treatment
has been studied extensively, but UV radiation generation by lamps or ozone
production is expensive and could be improved through the use of catalysis and
solar energy 10. The study investigates the
mechanisms of solar photo-catalytic ozonation processes. It focuses on decomposition
of aqueous ozone by UV-visible radiation with focus on impact of solar photo
catalytic ozonation on the degradation of industrial wastewater pollutants11.

1.3       
Main Objectives

The objectives of the
research are;

·        
Performance study of solar-photo
catalytic ozonation process

·        
To evaluate the removal efficiency
of the industrial pollutants using solar photo-ozonation process

·        
Comparison of removal efficiency
through catalytic ozonation process and solar photo-catalytic ozonation process
in terms of removal efficiency and effluent quality.

·        
Investigating the mechanism of
solar photo-ozonation process in the presence of alumina

·        
Investigating the influence of
factors like temperature, pH, initial dose, initial concentration, and effect
of hydroxyl radical scavenger and time on the removal efficiency.

1.4       
Scope of the Thesis

Water
is an essential element to a healthy lifestyle. Water pollution causes a
diverse impact on the environment, so its protection is an important concern.
Moreover, scarcity of water is the main problem that humankind is facing now a
day. Industrial waste has been recognized as the major
contamination of water resources and thus the environment. therefore, great
attention should be given to preserve our resources that are deleting day by
day.

Textile Industry of Pakistan is a major contributor to water pollution;
however, it is difficult to predict a realistic range which could represent
wastewater quantity generated from textile processing unit. ETPI’s (Pakistan Environment Technology Program for industry Survey)
environmental audits of textile industries show that 0.08-0.15 m3 of
water is consumed per kg of the finished fabric and 1000-3000 m3 of
wastewater is generated per day against a product of 12-20 ton/day.

It is known
that about 30% of dyes applied remain in the solution unattached to the
textiles (Vandevivere et al., 1998; Yong et al., 2005) depending on the fiber,
depth of shade and dye type. Reactive dyes, for instance occur at high
concentrations in waste streams due to their low fixation to cellulosic fibers.1 Therefor, efforts should be made to develop and
implement new efficient and economical methods of treatment.

In this concern,
great attention is being given to the removal of these pollutants from textile wastewater
by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) that are based on generation of highly
reactive species, especially hydroxyl radicals.

In this context, the main goal of this Master thesis
is thus to explore new methodologies of remediation of textile industrial
wastewaters by AOPs methods. Acid red dye
obtained from Sigma–Aldrich was selected for this study because it is widely
used in dyeing wool, silk, and synthetic fiber nylon by the textile industry. These acids degradation was studied by single and
catalytic ozonation such as Al2O3 catalyst. This method is of recent methods used in the
wastewater treatment, which obtain efficient results in the clearance of
various pollutants and have the advantage of being performed at room temperature
and pressure.

In ozonation system, it was also investigated the
influence of pH, phosphates and the presence or absence of heterogeneous
catalyst. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, though less studied than the
homogeneous process, is more attractive as it provides greater oxidation efficiency,
costs less and is more feasible for practical applications when compared to
traditional processes.

Moreover, in my research
catalyst in the presence of solar light was tested. In this ambit, it is the goal
to study the efficiency of Solar Photo-Catalytic process which is a new route
taken in this AOPs methods and just preliminary tests were done to analyse the
effect of the several affecting parameters

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