The commercially available at an affordable price.

The advantages of NDs are unmatched by any other carbon or non-carbon nanomaterial and these advantages are important enough to render the ND as superior nanomaterial. And yet, ND offers more benefits: it should be synthesize cheaply and easily by detonation at a large industrial scale and commercially available at an affordable price. All these factors create a growing interest in using the hardest material (diamond) at its nanoscale to fight against some of the major problems faced by human society. The strong covalent bonding between carbon atoms in the nanodiamond crystallographic lattice results in the material with the highest known atomic density. This also results the chemically inert, most hard material with stabilities over a wide range of environments. DNDs are stable in acidic and basic environments and can be heated in vacuum without extensive graphitization up to ~800 oC, and can stand up to combustion when heated in air upto ~450 oC12. Due to high-wear resistance and hardness property micro- and nanoparticles of diamond are used as a polishing agent. High chemical stability of these NDs makes it useful in applications involving harsh conditions, such as microelectronic processing, in which NDs are for the growth of diamond films by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). When NDs are used as an additive in lubricant, give fine polishing of surfaces resulting decrease in friction and increase in fuel efficiency for both diesel and gasoline based vehicles. NDs are differentiate from other nanomaterials through the core which is the primary structural feature. The structure also put the foundation for excellent optical properties like a large bandgap and transparency from the ultraviolet to infrared spectral regions. The crystallographic core is also responsible for the high refractive index of diamonds (~2.4) due to which there is strong light scattering in NDs which make them useful as a non-toxic UV shielding nano-additives in sunscreens and polymer coatings. Only the arrangement of carbon in diamond give its robust mechanical properties, defects in the carbon lattice network are equally unique7. Colourcentres which are based on nitrogen impart fluorescent properties to diamonds. Detonation NDs containing nitrogen impurities are derived from explosives. An extra amount of nitrogen present in DNDs restrict the formation of optically active colourcentres, opportunities exist to produce DNDs containing colourcentres. Along with optically active fluorescent defect centres, boron doping give electrically conductive nanodiamonds which are of high technological importance. Tritium doping DND core is another new opportunity that give highly stable radio-labelled nanodiamonds which is useful for bioimaging applications. While leaving the available surface for further fictionalization with targeted proteins and for drug uploading. The size and shape of NDs particles render themselves to a various number of applications. The size of primary particles of detonation nanodiamonds are 4-6 nm and are approximate spherical in shape. This well-defined shape and size offers a number of applications that include the uploading of sorbent molecules, or the formation of a compact network of bonds between ND nanofillers and its surrounding polymer matrix, where a high specific surface area (~300-400 m2/g) is required13. Round shape particles are greatly more effective in lubrication and polishing applications, where NDs act as nanoscale ball bearings. In biological applications, well-controlled sizes, shapes particles modify the loading capacity for drug delivery or protein adsorption. Primary particles of DND have many advantage as compared to other comparably sized materials particles in applications where true sub-10 nm particles with low cytotoxicity are required. Primary DNDs particles are highly non-toxic, however, its toxicity should be dependent on sufficient purification from sp2 carbon and metals, and also depends on the type of cell used14. The most necessary features of monodispersed “single-digit” NDs particles and related properties are summarized in Figure 2. Each of different structural features contributes to a particular identity of nanodiamonds, and each characteristic distribute the material for different applications. Now, detonation ND (DND) is a excessive source of “single-digit” ND particles that can be produced at a large scale. The formed detonation NDs are hydrophilic and enclosed by oxygen-containing groups which result from the purification by oxidation from sp2 carbons. Acid treatment of primary particles formed the carboxylated NDs (4-6 nm) with a zeta potential of about -45 mV that can be spread out in a variety of polar solvents. Chemical reduction of the particles give 4-6 nm NDs with a spreading of hydroxylic surface groups with zeta potential around +30 mV. The value of the zeta potential is important for controlled electrostatic interactions of target sorbent molecules and for interaction with cells, (surfaces of cell membranes are negatively charged). A number of interesting functionalization schemes have been developed for tailoring the surface groups of NDs. These scheme contains NDs with surface amino functionalities for bio-applications and attachment of biotin, streptavidin and nucleic acids, etc. These surface functionalities enable the functionalization of NDs with a wide variety of groups and thus make them satisfactory for potential applications involving in vitro and/or in vivo-targeted delivery and bioimaging15,16.